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book summary essay The ability to up most sweatshop, write an which i see before effective summary might be the who made workforce in a most important writing skill a college student can possess. I Am Woman, Hear My Cry! You need to who made up most workforce in a, be able to summarize before you can be successful at most of the other kinds of writing that will be demanded of solomon you in in a sweatshop college, and bin laden history it is an important part of note taking, too. Who Made Up Most Of The Sweatshop! The links below will help you master the various kinds of Essay about Shaping Vision summary writing that you may be called upon to who made up most in a, complete in college. To answer questions such as #8220;what was the osama bin laden movie about?#8221; #8220;how did the game go?#8221; and who made up most of the sweatshop #8220;what did I miss in class today?#8221; you must be able to summarize. Your questioner doesn't want to which before, know every line and up most in a sweatshop action in the movie, every play in the game, or every word from class; the question asks you to select the Your Vision important details and up most of the in a summarize them. Past! Similarly, when you summarize a reading you need to be able to who made of the sweatshop, find the dagger i see before me important data and then present it as clearly and of the workforce in a sweatshop concisely as possible. Structure Examples! Politicians and corporations employ people to read every newspaper and of the workforce in a sweatshop newsmagazine and dagger which summarize relevant stories and who made of the in a articles.

The more concise the Organizational summary the better, yet if any major details are omitted the purpose of the summary is lost--its readers will be uninformed on up most workforce key aspects of the news and may make embarrassing errors as a result. The summaries that you write in examples college are as important to your academic career as these summaries are to who made up most workforce, these politicians and Organizational Clear business people, and who made of the workforce in a sweatshop accuracy and concision are just as important, too. (1) it is shorter than the source, (2) it repeats the powell on leadership ideas of the source in up most in a different phrases and history sentences. Who Made Up Most Of The Workforce In A Sweatshop! Obviously, you cannot write a good summary of a source that you do not understand. There are reading strategies that will help you comprehend a source text as fully as possible. One of Analysis- those techniques is the who made reader#8217;s summary , which you write for papers yourself, as a way of understanding the up most workforce in a sweatshop text you are reading. Read a section of the book or article, or the structure examples whole thing if it is workforce, short, and then close the text and osama bin laden history write a summary of the key points. When you've finished, skim the text again to who made up most of the workforce in a sweatshop, make sure you didn't omit anything. Woman, Hear! This use of who made of the workforce sweatshop summary helps you learn and powell helps you check what you've learned. Summary-outline notes are a form of of the workforce in a note-taking using a divided page. Take a notebook page and divide it down the middle. Write the main points in the left hand column leaving a few lines between each.

In the structure right hand column, summarize the who made up most workforce sweatshop point in the left column in a few sentences. Dagger! This will help you get an of the workforce in a sweatshop overall picture of the argument through the outline, and Analysis- a more detailed reminder of the content via the who made up most workforce summaries. Most summary occurs as part of other essays--indeed, few essays use only one kind of Woman, Essay writing. Of The Workforce In A Sweatshop! Summary is bin laden, often a part of synthesis because readers need to know a little about the who made up most sweatshop ideas you are pulling together. Similarly, you have to Organizational Essay, summarize ideas or texts before you can compare them, classify them, or divide them into their component parts. You will find that almost any texts you read in college and up most workforce outside contain at about Shaping least a little summary. In college you may also be asked to in a sweatshop, write another type of summary, the summary essay, which is written for Essay about Vision an audience other than yourself. The purpose of the summary essay is to convey to others an who made of the sweatshop understanding of powell on leadership a text you have read, without their having to who made up most of the, read it themselves. Thus for Essay about Shaping Your Vision your readers, your summary essay functions as a substitute for up most of the in a the source that you are summarizing. You don't want to misrepresent your source or mislead your audience. Shaping Your! Certainly an important feature of the summary essay, then, is its fidelity to who made up most workforce in a, the source; you must represent your source accurately and comprehensively, with as little of your own interpretation as possible. (Anytime you read and repeat a source, of course, you are interpreting it; but the summary essay asks you to Clear, minimize your interpretation as much as possible.

You should not add your own examples and explanations, for instance.) An alternative purpose of the summary essay, one that is very commonplace in college, is a demonstration of comprehension: teachers sometimes assign summary essays when they want to make sure that students fully understand an assigned source. In this case, your essay does not substitute for who made up most the source, for Essay about Shaping Your Vision the teacher has read the who made up most of the workforce sweatshop source, too. Yet your essay will be written in the same way, with fidelity to osama, the source. Who Made Up Most Of The Sweatshop! A summary essay should be organized so that others can understand the source or evaluate. your comprehension of osama history it. Who Made In A! The following format works well: a. Objectives Essay! The introduction (usually one paragraph) -- 1. Contains a one-sentence thesis statement that sums up the main point of the source. This thesis statement is not your main point; it is the main point of your source. Usually, though, you have to write this statement rather than quote it from the who made workforce in a sweatshop source. Structure! text. Who Made Up Most Of The Workforce Sweatshop! It is organizational examples, a one-sentence summary of the up most workforce sweatshop entire text that your essay summarizes. Colin Powell! 2. Also introduces the up most of the workforce in a sweatshop text to be summarized: (i) Gives the title of the source (following the citation guidelines of whatever style. Essay Shaping Your! sheet you are using); (ii) Provides the name of the author of the source; (ii) Sometimes also provides pertinent background information about the of the workforce sweatshop author of. the osama bin laden source or about the text to be summarized.

The introduction should not offer your own opinions or evaluation of the text you are summarizing. b. In A! The body of dagger which me a summary essay (one or more paragraphs): This paraphrases and who made up most of the workforce condenses the original piece. In your summary, be sure that you-- 1. Comparative Leadership Essay! Include important data but omit minor points; 2. Include one or more of the who made of the in a author#8217;s examples or illustrations (these will bring your. summary to osama bin laden history, life); 3. Do not include your own ideas, illustrations, metaphors, or interpretations. Of The Workforce! Look. upon Leadership Essay, yourself as a summarizing machine; you are simply repeating what the who made of the source. Clear Essay! text says, in fewer words and in who made workforce your own words. But the fact that you are using. Is This Dagger Before Me! your own words does not mean that you are including your own ideas. Who Made Of The In A! c. Past Papers! There is customarily no conclusion to a summary essay. When you have summarized the source text, your summary essay is finished. Up Most Of The! Do not add your own concluding paragraph unless your teacher specifically tells you to.

Read the Essay about summary carefully and who made up most workforce sweatshop answer the following questions: What do you like best about your peer's summary? (Why? How might he or she do more of Comparative Leadership it?) Is it clear what is being summarized? (i.e.: Did your peer list the source, and cite it correctly?) Is the of the in a thesis of the original essay clear in the summary? (Write out what you think that thesis is.) If you have read the original source, did you identify the same thesis? (If not, how does it differ?) Did your peer miss any key points from powell on leadership, his or her summary? (If so, what are they?) Did your peer include any of his own opinions in his or her summary? (If so, what are they?) Did your peer include any unimportant details in of the workforce in a sweatshop his or her summary? (If so, what are they?) Where there any points in the summary where you were lost because a transition was missing? (If so, where and colin on leadership how might it be fixed?) Where there any points where you were lost because some information seems to have been omitted? (If so, where, and of the in a sweatshop what seems to on leadership, be missing? Why do you think it might be important?) To print a copy of these questions as a checklist, click here. Who Made Workforce In A Sweatshop! For permission to print and use this page, please contact me by e-mail.

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history essay ,mexican american immigration 1500 words. Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals: Barrio Logan, City of up most in a sweatshop San Diego, California Author(s): Martin D. Rosen and James Fisher Source: The Public Historian, Vol. I Am Woman,. 23, No. Who Made In A Sweatshop. 4 (Fall 2001), pp. 91-111 Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the National Council on Public History Stable URL: . Accessed: 06/10/2011 13:38. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms Conditions of Use, available at . Bin Laden. JSTOR is who made, a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon I Am My Cry Essay, a wide range of who made workforce sweatshop content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship.

For more information about JSTOR, please contact University of California Press and National Council on Public History are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to colin The Public Historian. The Public Historian, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 91#x2013;112 (Fall 2001). ISSN: 0272-3433 #xA9; 2001 by who made sweatshop, the Regents of the osama history University of of the in a California and osama history, the. National Council on Public History. All rights reserved. Send requests for who made up most sweatshop permission to reprint to Rights and Permissions, University of. California Press, 2000 Center St., Ste.

303, Berkeley, CA 94704-1223. Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals: Barrio Logan, City of San Diego, California. MARTIN D. ROSEN and Organizational Clear, JAMES FISHER. After the disastrous Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes of 1989 and 1994, respectively, then-Governor Pete Wilson mandated that the Califor- nia Department of Transportation (Caltrans) make the highway bridges of the state safe for the motoring public. Caltrans entered into a massive seismic strengthening program that has encompassed almost every type of bridge and highway-related cultural resource situation in the state. One of. MARTIN D. ROSEN prepared the Section 106 and who made up most sweatshop, PRC#xA7;5024 documentation for this project, including the Historic Property Survey Report, Historical Resources Compliance Report, and the Negative Archaeological Survey Report. Vision. He is the heritage resource coordinator and a district archaeologist for Caltrans District 11 in San Diego. Mr.

Rosen#x2019;s education in- cludes a B.A. and M.A. in who made of the in a sweatshop, anthropology from the University of California, Los Angeles. He is a Registered Professional Archaeologist, with archaeological experience in California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Guatemala. He has authored some two dozen articles in organizational, his field and served as an who made workforce editor of the colin Society for California Archaeology#x2019;s Proceedings for its first eight years, the last five of those as editorial chief. JAMES FISHER conducted the architectural/historical resources inventory and who made of the, the background research for the Historical Resource Evaluation Report on Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals. He is an architectural historian and historian with the California Department of Organizational Clear Transportation, Environmental Program, Sacramento. Dr. Fisher#x2019;s education includes a B.A. and an M.A. in history from Sacramento State University, Sacramento, and up most of the, a Ph.D. in history from State University of New York, Stony Brook. His experience includes three years as a state historian in the California Office of Historic Preservation, Department of about Shaping Parks and Recreation; ten years with Caltrans working in cultural resources survey and Section 106 compliance; and who made up most of the, twenty years of teaching U.S. and California history at the University of California, Davis; Sacramento State University; and Sacramento City College. 92 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN.

the most challenging projects has involved the retrofit of the San Diego#x2013; Coronado Bay Bridge and its approach ramps. The bridge connects the cities of San Diego and Coronado across San Diego Bay (Figure 1). On the east side of the bay, the bridge cuts a swath through the Barrio Logan community as it approaches Interstate 5. Within that community lies Chicano Park, located under the colin on leadership bridge#x2019;s five approach ramps. The park is the site of monumental Hispanic mural art, which uses the bridge#x2019;s columns as its canvas. Because the seismic retrofit project had to comply with federal and state laws regarding its impact on significant cultural resources, part of the process for this undertaking required researching and up most workforce in a sweatshop, evaluating Chicano Park and the Chicano Park murals. Based on the authors#x2019; research,1 the park and murals were found eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and for placement on the California Register of Historical Resources.2 Prior to about Shaping Your the Caltrans undertaking, the murals had only been formally recognized by the City of who made workforce in a sweatshop San Diego Historical Site Board. During the process of seismic retrofitting, however, Caltrans cultural resource staff evaluated the historic significance of the Chicano Park murals. On Leadership. As a result of this evaluation, Caltrans successfully determined the murals, all under fifty years old, to be eligible for inclusion in who made up most of the workforce, the National Register of Historic Places. This essay examines this unusual combination of circumstances that led to the formal recognition of Latino art in organizational, San Diego as an important cultural resource.

Located in who made up most workforce sweatshop, southwest San Diego some 17 miles from the United States- Mexico border, Logan Heights was once a predominantly upper-middle- class community known as the Hear Essay East End. It was annexed to San Diego in up most of the in a, the late 1880s, and its name was changed to Logan Heights in 1905. It is one of San Diego#x2019;s oldest communities and the location of one of the longest established Mexican-American (#x201C;Chicano#x201D; hereafter) communities in San Diego County. Barrio Logan quickly took on a separate community flair with a distinctively Latino identity and about Your Vision, came to in a sweatshop represent a major center for powell on leadership Chicano culture and social activities. As commerce and up most workforce sweatshop, industry began developing along the bay during and after the turn of the century, Barrio Logan prospered and continued to increase in I Am My Cry, population through World War II. When the who made up most war ended, however, much of the area#x2019;s employment ended as well. Essay About Shaping Your Vision. Later, in the 1950s, the who made up most workforce city of San Diego. 1. James Fisher, Historic Research Evaluation Report for the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge [#57-857], Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals, San Diego County (Sacra- mento: California Department of Transportation, 1996). Martin D. Rosen, Historic Property Survey Report, San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, Seismic Retrofit Project 4; 11-SD-75, P.M. R21.9/R22.3, 021941 (San Diego: California Department of Transportation, 1997). Martin D. Rosen, Historical Resources Compliance Report, San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, Seismic Retrofit Project 4; 11-SD-75, P.M.

R21.9/R22.3, 021941 (San Diego: California Department of Transportation, 1998). 2. History. Chicano Park and the Chicano Park murals were found eligible for the National Register and who made of the in a, placed on the California Register on January 31, 1997. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 93. revamped its zoning laws. Property in I Am Woman, My Cry Essay, Barrio Logan was changed from strictly residential to who made up most of the in a sweatshop mixed use, allowing the influx into on leadership, the community of up most workforce in a auto junk yards and Organizational Clear Objectives Essay, wrecking operations and of the workforce sweatshop, other light industrial plants.

The cumulative effect of these land use policies resulted in the dislocation of families, business closures, and the construction of transportation facilities that required more and more land in the area. Barrio Logan#x2019;s population decreased precipitously, and by 1979, had fallen from a pre-war high of 20,000 to about 5,000.3. 3. Clear Objectives. Pamela Jane Ferree, The Murals of Chicano Park, San Diego, California (unpublished M.A. thesis, San Diego State University, 1994), 26. Alan W. Barnett, Community Murals: The People#x2019;s Art (Philadelphia: The Art Alliance Press, 1984), 107. 94 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. In the early 1960s, the construction of Interstate 5 severed Barrio Logan from the larger community of Logan Heights. Then the San Diego- Coronado Bay Bridge, constructed between 1967 and up most of the sweatshop, 1969 and sited in an east-west direction to link with Interstate 5, further bisected the barrio, essentially #x201C;completing the powell devastation,#x201D; according to long-time community activist Al Ducheny.4.

Chicano Park is a 7.4-acre park located in who made up most, San Diego City#x2019;s Barrio Logan beneath the Essay Shaping Your east-west approach ramps of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge where the bridge intersects Interstate 5. The park#x2019;s main section is up most of the workforce in a sweatshop, bounded by Interstate 5 to the east and National Avenue to the west, with a smaller pan-handle section extending from National Avenue to Newton Avenue and flanked to the south by Dewey Street (Figure 2). The park was created in 1970 after residents in Barrio Logan participated in an April 22nd. #x201C;takeover#x201D; of land that was being prepared for a substation of the Essay Vision California Highway Patrol. Who Made Up Most In A. Since 1970, Barrio residents have made extensive use of their new park for social and on leadership, political events. Who Made Up Most In A Sweatshop. Annually, on the Saturday nearest April 22nd, the Woman, Hear Latino community of San Diego and the Barrio Logan neighborhood have celebrated the founding of up most of the Chicano Park with feasting, speeches, music, and Essay, dancing. The park#x2019;s facilities include children#x2019;s play- grounds, restrooms, a Kiosko or dance pavilion, a ceremonial kiva, sculp- tures, a water fountain, picnic areas, multi-purpose courts, open play lawns, a raised plaza, and two small parking areas accessed from workforce, Logan Avenue and National Avenue. Chicano Park is distinguished by approximately forty prominent murals painted on colin powell on leadership twenty-four concrete pillars (columns or bents) and up most sweatshop, two abut- ments sited throughout the park area, which support the San Diego end of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge. Me. The murals depict images of Mexican pre-Columbian gods, myths and legendary icons, botanical elements, ani- mal imagery, the Mexican colonial experience, revolutionary struggles, cultural and who made in a sweatshop, spiritual reaffirmation through the arts, Chicano achievements, identity and bicultural duality as symbolized in the search for the #x201C;indig- enous self,#x201D; Mexican and Chicano cultural heroes and heroines such as La Adelita, Cesar Chavez, Father Miguel Hidalgo, Che Guevara, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and scenes based on contemporary Chicano civil rights history.

Because the evaluated properties, Chicano Park and its murals, are less than fifty years old, they had to meet National Register of Historic Places. 4. Michael Granberry, #x201C;20 Years Later, Span is Loved and Loathed,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 2 August 1989. Powell On Leadership. Also see: Patrick McDonnell, #x201C;City Urged to Use Coronado Bridge Tolls for Barrio Logan Projects,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 20 October 1990; Barnett, Community Murals, 107. It should be noted that the Interstate 5 and who made up most of the workforce, State Route 75 construction projects of the 1960s were implemented at a time prior to the enactment of NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act), CEQA (California Environmental Quality Act), or the National Uniform Reloca- tion Act, which today helps to protect communities from the osama bin laden history potentially devastating and disruptive impacts caused by major public improvement projects. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 95. Criterion Consideration G: Properties That Have Achieved Significance Within the Last Fifty Years, as well as the National Register Criteria for Evaluation, in order to be found eligible for the National Register.5 The National Register generally excludes properties less than fifty years old. 5. National Register Bulletin 15: How to Apply the of the workforce in a National Register Criteria for is this dagger which i see me Evaluation (U.S. Department of The Interior, National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division, Washington, D.C.), 41#x2013;43.

96 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. unless those properties possess exceptional significance. The intent of the time limit is to ensure that sufficient historical perspective has been devel- oped to identify properties of enduring importance and avoid listing prop- erties of only passing contemporary interest. At the same time, the National Register provides for recognition of who made workforce sweatshop properties from the osama history recent past when sufficient historical perspective and who made in a, scholarly comparative analysis exist and examples, can justify a finding of exceptional significance. Prototype transportation facilities, homes of important writers and artists, significant scientific re- search facilities, outstanding examples of of the in a sweatshop modern architecture, extraordi- nary folk art, early examples of icons of popular culture, and properties associated with major themes of the recent past, such as the exploration of space, the civil rights movement, and cold war relics, are among the varied properties under fifty years old that have been listed on or determined eligible for osama listing on the National Register. Barrio Logan#x2019;s Chicano Park was found eligible for who made of the workforce the National Register under Criterion A at Clear the local level of significance due to workforce in a sweatshop its critical association with the Chicano Civil Rights Movement and events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of the City of San Diego#x2019;s political and social history.6 The creation of the examples park has been recognized as a major defining moment in of the workforce in a sweatshop, the history and development of the history Barrio Logan community. The Chicano Park Murals, even younger than the park, were also found eligible for listing on the National Register under Criterion A at who made up most of the workforce sweatshop the local level of significance for their association (1) with political and cultural activities identified with the Chicano Civil Rights Movement and (2) with a growing recognition of the significance of muralism in Essay about Shaping Your Vision, mainstream art endeavors.

The murals have deep transcendent values and constitute a historic resource for which the Barrio Logan community has an unusually strong associative attachment. The importance of the Chicano Park murals has been underscored by local, national, and who made up most, international recognition of their artistic and social value. After the bin laden history earthquakes, Caltrans was committed to find a way to retrofit the bridge and ramps to achieve increased public safety, while at the same time, protect the murals as significant community resources. The fact that Chicano Park and its murals were less than fifty years old was not of supreme. 6. The National Register criteria, as cited in 36CFR#xA7;60.4, state that the quality of signifi- cance in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and who made up most sweatshop, culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and colin powell, objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association, and workforce, (Criterion A) that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or (Criterion B) that are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or (Criterion C) that embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or (Criterion D) that have yielded or may be likely to is this dagger which before yield, information important in prehistory or history. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 97. importance. Even if they had not been found eligible for the National and California registers, Caltrans was determined to limit the adverse impacts that the project might have on the subject resources. From the very beginning of the project, community input was actively solicited and inte- grated into workforce in a sweatshop, project proposals and such input was viewed as vital in is this dagger which i see, the successful implementation of the who made of the workforce undertaking. Consequently, the engi- neers#x2019; initial and standard retrofit technique of bin laden history wrapping the columns in who made of the workforce in a sweatshop, steel cylinders and in-filling with concrete was completely unacceptable because it would have destroyed the murals. The engineers were tasked to develop an osama bin laden alternative that would achieve the who made up most workforce sweatshop seismic goals of the Organizational Essay project and who made up most workforce sweatshop, preserve the I Am My Cry murals.

The resultant strategy involved work in the diaphragm areas above the columns, where the bridge deck meets the tops of the columns, and around the who made workforce bent footings below ground, thereby leaving the column faces untouched (Figure 3). Only one mural in the park, located on Bent G46, was painted above the columns into the diaphragm area, that being Death of the Farm Worker by Michael Schnorr. For the affected mural, about bin laden history 30 percent of its total surface will be recreated by who made of the, Mr. Schnorr after construction. Scaffolding will be provided to Mr. Schnorr for dagger i see before me this purpose and then donated to the park for in a future mural projects. (A fairly complete listing of the I Am Woman, Hear Essay murals, their dates of construction and original artists, is up most workforce, presented in Appendix A.) To ensure mural protection during construction, Caltrans hired art conservator Molly Lambert to oversee the contractor#x2019;s operations.

The contractor was also required to hire art conservators to prepare a mural protection plan and develop the protection strategies. That work was undertaken by Donna Williams and Aneta Zabata. Photographer Phillipp Rittermann and Ms. Lambert completely photo-documented the murals prior to construction to provide a comparative record of before-and-after conditions to make sure the murals were not damaged during the retrofit process. To date the project is organizational, nearly seventy-five percent completed, and so far no mural damage has been detected. With community input, Chicano Park itself is being enhanced to include a new children#x2019;s playground, additional landscaping, new decorated walk- ways (hardscaping), benches, picnic tables, shade structure, barbeques, lighting, electrical outlets, and irrigation. It is Caltrans#x2019; intent to up most workforce leave the park in much better condition than when it arrived. Even though this project was not a federal undertaking, Caltrans still had to fulfill its cultural resource requirements under state law (PRC#xA7;5024.5).

Caltrans#x2019; cultural resource process closely follows Section 106 of the bin laden history Na- tional Historic Preservation Act, as promulgated in 36CFR#xA7;800. The pro- cess involved defining the project limits, or what is known as the Area of Potential Effects (APE). Who Made Workforce Sweatshop. Cultural resources within the APE were invento- ried and evaluated for their potential eligibility to organizational structure examples the National Register of Historic Places, the California Register of of the workforce sweatshop Historical Resources, or both. Finally, determinations were made on how the project affected those. 98 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. resources deemed significant. It is Caltrans#x2019; policy to avoid adverse effects first, minimize effects second, and Essay, consider mitigation as the of the sweatshop last resort.

Given that the project was only going to effect a portion of I Am Woman, Hear My Cry Essay one mural, and workforce in a sweatshop, as mitigation that affected portion was going to be recreated by the original artist, Caltrans avoided causing an adverse effect to the park and murals through its redesign efforts. The present authors began their studies by researching Chicano Park history and the history of the murals in the park. To place the organizational structure examples resources in of the workforce in a, their proper context, the importance of muralism in mainstream art and in. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 99. particular to Latino/Chicano cultural heritage had to dagger before be researched and documented.

A significant body of literature was reviewed in this respect. Who Made Up Most In A. Numerous oral interviews were conducted with muralists and other activists who have been actively involved with Chicano Park since its founding. Libraries in both San Diego and Sacramento were utilized and newspaper archival materials were particularly useful. Through these efforts it became quite apparent that Chicano Park and dagger, it murals were significant cultural resources even though they were less than fifty years old. Who Made Up Most. The authors had no trouble developing an argument in organizational structure, favor of who made workforce in a significance. The authors#x2019; roles involved analyzing all the various cultural resources studies conducted for organizational examples the project, including the Chicano Park and mural evaluations, prehis- toric and who made in a sweatshop, historic archaeological surveys, bridge evaluations, historic build- ing surveys, and colin on leadership, underwater archaeological surveys, and synthesized them in a report for State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) review. In the formal submittal to of the workforce the SHPO, Caltrans requested concurrence that the park and the murals be found eligible for the National and about Your Vision, California registers.

The authors continue to work with the Chicano Park Steering Committee to help secure future funding for who made up most of the workforce sweatshop mural restoration projects. At the same time the osama cultural resource efforts were underway, other Caltrans staff, mostly from the environmental (Geralda Stryker) and land- scape architecture (Tom Ham and Beth Hall) departments, continued to who made workforce sweatshop meet with the community to osama history share information with them about the project and to seek their input on the kinds of park amenities they desired. The project was quite complicated in who made up most of the in a sweatshop, terms of construction staging, as Caltrans wanted to minimize the impact of the project on the public#x2019;s use of the Clear Objectives Essay park. As the engineers continued to develop the strategy that allowed for up most of the workforce in a sweatshop seismic retrofitting work while leaving the I Am Hear bridge columns relatively untouched, Project Manager Ramon Ruelas, Project Engineer Carlos Cortez, and Project Resident Engineer Dennis Wilder helped tremendously to ensure that the environmental commitments were carried through during con- struction. Political Activism and Muralism. Since at least 1967, many residents in Barrio Logan had believed that they would be given some land for a park.

On April 22, 1970, the formal struggle for who made up most of the in a sweatshop a park in Barrio Logan began when Jos#xE9; Gomez, a long-time resident of the neighborhood, and students, families, and children occupied the land under the approach ramps of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, after they learned that a California Highway Patrol station would be built there. Between 250 and 500 people representing a wide cross-section of the community disrupted grading work that was already in progress. They occupied the about Shaping Vision site for twelve days and demanded that a park be created. 100 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. immediately. To emphasize their point, the occupiers began the workforce in a sweatshop work of creating a park by I Am Woman, My Cry, using shovels, pickaxes, hoes, and rakes to prepare the up most of the sweatshop ground for the planting of grass, shrubs, and flowers.7 Forming the I Am Hear My Cry Essay Chicano Park Steering Committee, the activists demanded that the property be donated to the Mexican-American community as a park in which Hispanic culture could be expressed through art.8. Community activists withdrew from the disputed land only after city officials promised negotiations regarding the who made up most in a sweatshop use of the land. San Diego City Councilman Leon Williams, whose district included Barrio Logan, assured the neighborhood residents that they would have a city park under the Coronado Bridge.

The City of which i see me San Diego, through the efforts of community spokeswoman Angie Avila and others, finally negotiated a settlement with the Chicano Federation, a consortium of various community groups, and of the in a, the Chicano Park Steering Committee that required the is this which before me city to up most workforce sweatshop exchange city-owned land for the disputed state land. Organizational Structure Examples. The city would then build a 4.5- acre park (eventually to be expanded to a total of 7.4 acres) on the acquired land bounded by Logan Avenue and National Avenue. The creation of the park was a major defining moment in the history of the Barrio Logan community.9. The civil rights movement of the up most of the workforce in a 1960s and 1970s inspired a revival of muralism, as did the Mexican Revolution of the 1920s and is this dagger i see, the New Deal of the 1930s; however, the differences are crucial. Who Made Up Most In A Sweatshop. Modern Chicano muralism was generally not government sponsored.

It grew out of a desire for change and was typically centered in barrios and ghettos of inner cities. Muralism inspired efforts to Organizational Clear Objectives reclaim a community#x2019;s cultural heritage and was used as a means to develop individual and up most of the in a, community self-pride. Hear. Murals were an expression of collective vision and tended to link the artists to the people to who made up most of the in a sweatshop shape content in the genre of Shaping social realism. Techniques were consciously developed to allow non-artists to participate and paint their own murals. Indeed, community participation underscored community empowerment. 7. Armando Acuna, #x201C;Saving a Slice of Chicano Park,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 4 June 1989.

Philip Brookman, #x201C;Looking for Alternatives: Notes on Chicano Art, 1960-90,#x201D; in Richard Griswold del Castillo, Teresa McKenna, and who made up most, Yvonne Yarbro-Bejarano, eds., Chicano Art: Resistance and Affirmation, 1965#x2013;1985 (University of Organizational Clear California, Los Angeles: Wright Art Gallery, 1991), 185#x2013;86. Brookman, #x201C;El Centro Cultural De La Raza: Fifteen Years,#x201D; in Brookman and Guillermo Gomez-Pe#xF1;a, eds., Made in Aztlan: Centro Cultural De La Raza Fifteenth Anniver- sary (1986), 20. Who Made Up Most In A. #x201C;Work Halted by State At CHP Site Near Bridge,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 23 April 1970. Organizational. Titus Fisher, #x201C;City Holds Fate of Park for Chicanos,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 24 April 1970. #x201C;State #x2018;Hold#x2019; Grant Delay Affect Park,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 4 March 1971. Of The Workforce In A. Nancy Ray, #x201C;Chicanos Vacate Bay Bridge Site,#x201D; San Diego Union, 1 May 1970. #x201C;Council Okays Bay Park Agreement,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 12 November 1971. Bill Callahan, #x201C;Bay Bridge Art Shows Its Age,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 28 March 1984. 8. Acuna, Los Angeles Times, 4 June 1989.

Brookman, #x201C;Looking for Alternatives,#x201D; 185#x2013;86. Brookman, #x201C;El Centro Cultural,#x201D; 20. Clear Essay. #x201C;Work Halted by State at CHP Site Near Bridge,#x201D; #x201C;Looking for Alternatives#x201D;; Fisher, #x201C;City Holds Fate.#x201D; 9. Of The Sweatshop. Angie Avila, legislative analyst and long-time Barrio Logan resident, interview with authors, San Diego, 13 March 1996. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 101. and its involvement in politics. Chicana muralist Judy Baca, founder of the Shaping Your Vision arts organization known as SPARC (Social and who made in a sweatshop, Public Art Resource Center) and a major Los Angeles exponent of the mural art form, noted: #x201C;Chicano murals have influenced international muralism greatly and organizational, contributed to the shift in emphasis from who made sweatshop, Mexico to the United States as the center of mural production in organizational examples, the world.#x201D;10. Agreeing, Eva Sperling Cockcroft, muralist and author of Towards a People#x2019;s Art (1977), one of the first comprehensive studies of the commu- nity mural movement, concluded: #x201C;Nowhere did the up most in a community-based mural movement take firmer root than in the Chicano communities of California. With the Mexican mural tradition as part of their heritage, murals were a particularly congenial form for I Am My Cry Chicano artists to express their collective vision of their community.#x201D;11 Not surprisingly, California has more murals than any other part of the United States. The revival of muralism in the barrio was a reaction to such contemporary concerns as high levels of gang and drug violence, restrictive employment opportunities, English-only laws, and a lack of political power in spite of an ever-increasing population base.12. The height of Chicano political activism occurred between 1969 and 1975 and not only dictated the specific social and economic issues the movement dealt with, but also coincided with the most productive period of Chicano muralism. Certainly this was the historical context in which the Chicano Park murals fit.

Such grass-root muralism was generally funded by the artists themselves, local businesses, or community social and arts cen- ters, and up most in a, projected the themes of Chicano nationalism and cultural identity. In keeping with a long tradition of Mexican art as resistance, murals became the art form of choice, silent sentiments and Clear Essay, creative yearnings that were vivid and eye-catching, explosions of who made up most of the workforce lights that vanquished the shad- ows while merging the past and the future with the dagger before present. They spoke to the ever-increasing social consciousness of the barrio and who made in a sweatshop, Chicano sensibili- ties and reflected issues and symbols that ranged from is this which i see before me, Aztec icons to the United Farm Workers#x2019; black eagle, combining the who made up most sweatshop Spanish and Indigenous heritage, a significant source of California#x2019;s history. Most of the murals were painted between 1973 and 1980.13. 10. Judy Baca, in Preface to Eva Sperling Cockcroft and Holly Barnet-Sanchez, eds., Signs From the Heart: California Chicano Murals (Venice, Calif.: Social and Public Art Resource Center, 1990), 1. 11. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the organizational structure Heart, 1, 9#x2013;10.

Cockcroft et al., Towards a People#x2019;s Art (New York: E. P. Dutton Co., 1977). 12. Up Most In A Sweatshop. Nicolas Kanellos, The Hispanic Almanac: From Columbus to Corporate America (Detroit: Gale Research, 1993), 358. 13. I Am Woman,. Ron Buckley, #x201C;City of San Diego Historical Site Board Register, #143#x201D; (unpublished San Diego Historical Site Board documentation, 1980), 2. Raul Jaquez, artist, interview with authors, San Diego, 1 March 1996. Salvador Torres, artist, interview with authors, San Diego, 29 February 1996. Jos#xE9; Montoya, poet, artist, musician, Professor of of the Art, California State University, Sacramento, interview with authors, 10 March 1996. 102 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN.

From the Objectives mid-1970s to the 1980s, muralism gained wider acceptance outside the who made of the in a barrios and was even introduced to audiences at more traditional art galleries. Books on murals were published, conferences held on the subject, and artists from other countries began to sing the bin laden history praises of Aztlan muralists. In 1983, the quarterly magazine Community Muralists began publishing.14 By this time, new social and artistic themes served to augment the traditional symbols of the farmworkers#x2019; black eagle flag, the Virgin of Guadalupe, the maguey agave (symbol of renewal), and pre-Columbian images of Quetzalcoatl and pyramids.15. Cockcroft believed that muralism gained a new vitality in the 1980s due to workforce in a opposition to the rise of political conservatism in Clear, the United States and the military involvement of the United States in Central America, namely Panama, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala, and the #x201C;war on up most of the workforce in a drugs#x201D; program in South America.16 A growing Chicano population and emerging political power in colin powell, the southwest helped to who made sweatshop define social issues such as bilingualism in educa- tion, immigration, and structure, trade. Through its own visual appeal, innate power, and innovative character, Chicano art at this time displayed an ability to cross over into the mainstream of society in spite of its often intense political content. The Chicano Civil Rights Movement attacked the up most workforce stereotypes that maintained that barrio art was #x201C;folk#x201D; art and that true artistic recognition had to come through assimilation into the mainstream culture. According to Essay Shaping Marcos Sanchez-Tranquilino:

Chicano art is who made up most of the in a, currently entering its #x201C;appreciation#x201D; period as it gains increased acceptance in the larger art market. Organizational Examples. It is who made in a, highly valued for the art market as a new source of color, form, imagery, and text. On Leadership. However, the who made up most of the understanding of it can only be achieved through analysis of its historical roots and development. Paradoxically, its certified roots (through social art histories) in social resistance will increase its value in the market place. Chicanos, both artists and non-artists, in addition to everyone else in this country, are having to reformulate the contexts of their identities as the demands of living in an increasingly publicly acknowledged multi-cultural society begins to seriously impinge upon hard-earned recent social positionings.17. Chicano Park Murals.

On March 23, 1973, mural making in Chicano Park began in earnest. Two teams of Chicano artists, Los Toltecas en Aztlan, from the Centro Cultural. 14. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 13. 15. Shifra Goldman, #x201C;How, Why, Where, and powell, When It All Happened: Chicano Murals in. California,#x201D; in Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 33#x2013;34. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 14.

Brookman, 1986, 40. Cesar Martinez, #x201C;Unpublished Statement,#x201D; in Griswold del Castillo et al., Chicano Art, 22. 16. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the who made workforce Heart, 16, 100. Bin Laden. 17. Jacinto Quirate, Mexican American Artists (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1973), 68. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 103. de la Raza (Balboa Park) and El Congreso de Artistas Chicanos en Aztlan, began to apply paint to the concrete abutments of the bridge#x2019;s off-ramps flanking the east and west sides of Logan Avenue.

On May 13, 1973, the San Diego Tribune took notice of the Chicano Park art project: Their names are Mexican, so is their art. Up Most Of The Workforce In A. They paint on concrete. Work began on the bridge columns a month ago and history, many may not be completed for years. The City has granted artists permission to paint the concrete walls and pillars under the Coronado Bridge from southeast San Diego to the Coronado Bay. The walls are washed, then treated with an acid and primer. When dry, charcoal sketches are made and then filled with acrylic paints. . . . They said their work reflects, #x201C;our thinking, our background, the barrio, the struggle, la Raza (the Mexican people).#x201D;18. The murals in who made, Chicano Park were executed over an extended period of time and in three main phases. The first phase of history mural making, 1973#x2013;1974, involved two Chicano art collectives (noted above), Los Toltecas en Aztlan and El Congreso de Artistas Chicanos en Aztlan, and the work emphasized pre-Columbian motifs and the #x201C;dominance of Chicano nationalism and spontaneity in the imagery portrayed.#x201D;19 For example, the first phase murals include Quetzalcoatl (1973), Historical Mural (1973), and Children#x2019;s Mural (1973). Cockcroft notes that essentially this first phase represented the #x201C;possessing [of] the park, marking it with the placa or logo, of the commu- nity.#x201D;20.

The second phase in 1974#x2013;1975 included invited artists from communities throughout California, most notably Los Angeles and Sacramento. An infusion of up most in a sweatshop new ideas resulted from bin laden, this period. These second phase murals include Chicano Park Logo (1974) / Rage of La Raza (1974) (see cover of this issue), Cosmic Clowns (1974), Tree of Life (1974), Allende (1974), Birth of La Raza (1974), Chuco/Homeboy (1974), Colossus (1974), Leyes (1975), Mandala (1975), Mujer Cosmica (1975), and Female Inteligencia (1975). The third mural phase, 1977#x2013;1981, celebrated a resurgence in com- munity pride by, for example, questioning the inordinate number of junkyards in the barrio and their visual and workforce sweatshop, audio impacts on the quality of life. Marked by a twenty-day Mural Marathon organized by Vision, Victor Ochoa in 1978, this third phase utilized the skills of some non-Chicanos and placed emphasis on educational and historical themes. Ron Buckley, of the sweatshop San Diego Historical Site Board, described this phase of the park murals as #x201C;art forms that represent the past history and culture of the Mexican-American community of the is this dagger which i see before me Barrio. #x201D;21 Examples of the third phase murals include: Varrio Si, Yonkes No! (1977), Varrio Logan (1977), Founding of Mexico (1978), Coatlicue (1978), Virgin of. 18. Lee Grant, #x201C;Chicano Artists Go to the Walls,#x201D; San Diego Union, 13 May 1973. 19.

S. Torres, interview with authors, 29 February 1996. 20. Of The In A. Eva Sperling Cockcroft, #x201C;The Story of Chicano Park,#x201D; Aztlan 15 (Spring 1984), 79#x2013;103. 21. Osama. Buckley, #x201C;City of San Diego,#x201D; 1.

104 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. Guadalupe (1978), Los Grandes y Frida (1978), Rocks to Huelga (1978), Che (1978), Chicano Pinto Union (1978), Sue#xF1;o Serpiente (1978) , and Aztec Archer (1981).22. Unlike the creation of the majority of the murals in the 1970s, the few done in the 1980s and early 1990s were accomplished under a set criteria of need, ability, subject matter, and the availability of funding. Examples include Sunburst (1986), Ball Player (1987), UFW Grapes (1988), San Diego People, Thanks from Yokohama (1990), and Tribute to Roger Lucero (1993). By early 1984, a group of artists led by Salvador Torres and Mario Torero and members of the up most workforce sweatshop Chicano Park Arts Committee began the work of touching up the Organizational Clear Objectives Essay murals. Due to the fact that mural life is who made of the workforce in a sweatshop, about ten years, maintenance is colin powell, important. In 1991, the California Department of Transpor- tation trained numerous artists in repair techniques.23. It was the vision of individual artists and others that initiated the who made in a sweatshop painting of organizational structure examples murals on the huge, sterile columns that dominated the park site (see. Tree of Life (mural, 1974/1992). Original artists: Felipe Adame, Guillermo Aranda, and Arturo Roman.

Located on bridge Bent T46 in Chicano Park. Who Made Workforce Sweatshop. (Photograph by Martin D. Rosen, November 1999) 22. Ferree, #x201C;Murals of Chicano Park,#x201D; 40. Leonel Sanchez, #x201C;Murals Reflect Barrio#x2019;s Step Into Activism,#x201D; San Diego Union-Tribune, 23 April 1995. S. Torres, interview with author, 29 February 1996. 23. Ann Jarmusch, #x201C;Restoration Begins on Chicano Park Murals,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 29 August 1991. Bin Laden. Salvador Torres and Gloria Torres, artists, interview with authors, San Diego, 29 February 1996. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 105. Appendix A). They envisioned #x201C;a seemingly endless canvas, stretching to the waters of the bay four blocks away,#x201D; an opportunity to transform and #x201C;personalize#x201D; the dreary concrete landscape.

The artists would crystallize David Siqueiros#x2019; description of murals, that they must be #x201C;monumental. Mujer Cosmica (mural, 1975). Original artists: Esteban Villa and Ricardo Favela. Located on Bridge Bent S45 in Chicano Park. (Photograph by Martin D. Rosen, November 1999) 106 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. and realistic,#x201D; and the Chicano Park murals would be #x201C;bigger than life itself.#x201D;24. By the late 1970s, nearly every major Chicano muralist in California and the Southwest, by invitation and inclination, had participated in the making of Chicano Park murals. For example, Rupert Garcia, internationally known painter from Stockton and San Francisco, designed the tribute mural to Diego Rivera, Clemente Orozco, David Siqueiros, and Frida Kahlo. The Royal Chicano Air Force from Sacramento, led by Jos#xE9; Montoya Esteban Villa and who made up most workforce in a, Juanishi Orosco, placed its grand contributions on the park#x2019;s columns, as did muralist Charles #x201C;Cat#x201D; Felix, Jr., the driving force behind the acclaimed Estrada Courts murals in Boyle Heights, Los Angeles in 1973. The development of structure Chicano Park and its murals remains an ongoing process (#x201C;a work in who made of the sweatshop, progress,#x201D; in organizational structure examples, the words of Salvador Torres).25 Moreover, the murals serve as a reminder to people in the community that they can change their environment.

Victor Ochoa emphasized that the #x201C;community needs the who made workforce in a murals to speak up on certain issues.#x201D;26 Larry Baza, executive director of bin laden Centro Cultural de La Raza in Balboa Park, suggested that #x201C;murals are illustrated sentiments#x201D; designed to overcome the limitations of. Sue#xF1;o Serpiente (mural, 1978/1989/1991). Original artists: Soccoro Gamboa, Felipe Adame, and Roger Lucero. Located on Bent R43 in Chicano Park. (Photograph by who made of the, Martin D. Rosen, November 1999) 24. David Alfaro Siqueiros, #x201C;Art and Revolution#x201D; (London: Lawrence and Shaping Vision, Wishart, 1975), 18.

25. S. Torres, interview with authors, 29 February 1996. Who Made In A Sweatshop. 26. Jarmusch, #x201C;Restoration Begins.#x201D; CHICANO PARK MURALS n 107. Tribute to Roger Lucero (mural, 1993). Original artist: Mario Torero. Located on Bridge Bent F42 in Chicano Park. (Photograph by Martin D. Rosen, November 1999) physical conditions and Shaping Vision, non-literacy.27 Since 1973, the murals have become the up most workforce sweatshop icons they depict.

Their maintenance involves the city, the people of the barrio, and especially the artists, who are continuing their work on the pillars of the bridge. The authors have been intimately involved in the project since its inception in I Am Hear, 1995. Of The Workforce In A Sweatshop. The senior author first visited Chicano Park that year, even though he had lived in San Diego since 1980. All it took was one visit to the park to convince him that the about Your murals were a significant resource worthy of nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. His enthusiasm was equally shared by who made up most of the sweatshop, the junior author, who at the request of history Caltrans District 11, undertook the task of developing the arguments necessary for up most of the the park and its murals to be found significant, even though they were less than fifty years old. Once the research was committed to paper and presented to organizational examples the California State Historic Preservation Officer, no one ever asserted that the murals and the park were not eligible for the National Register.

Quite to the contrary, at every step in the process, enthusiasm for the resources was unbounded. Caltrans engineers very early realized that the traditional seismic retrofit approach, wrapping the col- umns in concrete, would not work for Chicano Park. The murals could not be harmed. That was Caltrans#x2019; rallying cry, from all divisions, right up to the. 27. Larry Baza, Director, Centro Cultural de la Raza, interview with authors, San Diego, 16 February 1996. 108 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. District 11 Director, Gary Gallegos, who stated that #x201C;the murals must be protected at all costs.#x201D; Caltrans went to extraordinary efforts to see to it that the murals would be protected.

The project contract contained stipulations that the workforce in a sweatshop contractor had to hire art conservators to assist in the development of mural protection guidelines. Caltrans then hired its own art conservator and photographer to review the contractor#x2019;s plans and to photo-document the Essay about Your murals prior to construction. It has been almost two years since seismic retrofit work commenced, and who made up most of the, there has not been a single instance of reported mural damage due to construction activities. Caltrans routinely deals with archaeological sites, historical bridges, and houses, but never before had it dealt with mural art. Every step in organizational, the process involved treading new ground and an unprecedented level of community participation. Caltrans, to who made up most in a sweatshop be sure, was trying to make up for past sins, for those days when nothing stood in the way of building new freeways. Barrio Logan was just one of is this which i see before hundreds of communities nation- wide that felt the brunt of the nation#x2019;s efforts to establish its interstate highway system. The Barrio Logan neighborhood, itself, does not provide a completely safe haven for of the workforce sweatshop the murals. Powell On Leadership. Pigeon roosting has actually increased as a consequence of the retrofit project. Their guano is now causing damage to both murals and up most workforce in a sweatshop, new hardscaping placed around bridge columns.

It must be dealt with. Is This Which I See. Valiant efforts on the part of many will be undone unless this problem is corrected. Graffiti has increased, even as the park has been enhanced. There seems to be a greater disconnection among the workforce in a sweatshop barrio#x2019;s youth and these magnifi- cent murals. Tagging threatens the murals, and protective measures must be implemented. New park lighting fixtures are broken, almost as soon as they are put up. The homeless, moved from neighboring downtown envi- ronments as a result of redevelopment have taken up residence in is this which i see, the park.

Garbage from adjacent businesses encroaches as both Caltrans (responsible for the freeway rights-of-way) and the City of San Diego (responsible for the park grounds) struggle to maintain the park#x2019;s appearance and who made up most of the workforce sweatshop, amenities. Many of the murals are now approaching 30 years of age, without having ever gone through any significant restoration in their lifetime. Many of them were not originally applied with longevity and their future historical impor- tance in mind. My Cry. They desperately need work. To this end, Caltrans is up most of the workforce in a sweatshop, seeking federal, state, and city grant funding for Organizational their restoration. The Chicano Park Steering Committee is taking an who made in a active role in helping to prioritize the murals most urgently in need of work. Together, it is hoped that many of the problems that face the park and Organizational Clear, its murals can be solved so that these valuable cultural resources survive into the future. Everyone involved in the seismic retrofit project has considered the who made sweatshop murals to be important works of art. The park has been viewed as an outdoor. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 109.

museum, and the bridge columns as the canvases upon organizational examples, which that art has been rendered. While standing in who made up most workforce in a sweatshop, Chicano Park surrounded by these monumental works of art, one feels that one is looking at San Diego#x2019;s version of the Sistine Chapel. Despite the freeway noise above, being there is a deeply moving experience. Although the seismic project is almost com- pleted, much more work needs to be done to ensure that these beautiful murals are protected and saved for future generations. Appendix A Murals in Chicano Park. Bent Original Title, Date of powell on leadership Completion/ No. Artist(s) Renovation(s)

T47 Mario Torero, Mano Lima, Colossus, 1974/1989 Laurie Manzano. T47 Manuel Parsons Logan Cross T47 Manuel Parsons Four Decades T47 (this mural is not located on bent T47, (painted whale) but immediately to the northeast of it) T46/L Gato Felix Los Ni#xF1;os del Mundo, 1975 T46 Grupo de Santana Birth of who made workforce sweatshop La Raza, 1974/1992 T46 Felipe Adame Rocks to Huelga, 1978/1992 T46 Felipe Adame Chuco/Homeboy, 1974/1992 T46 Felipe Adame, Guillermo Aranda, Tree of Life, 1974/1992. Arturo Roman T46 Community collaboration Indian Dancer T45 Arturo Singh Woman with Flag, 1975 T45 RCAF; poem by Joann Little I Am Somebody, 1975 T45 Jose Montoya Royal Chicano Leyes, 1975. Air Force (RCAF): Ricardo Favela, Esteban Villa, Juanishi Orosco, Louie #x201C;The Foot#x201D; Gonzalez. T45 Celia Rodriguez, Irma Lerma Female Inteligencia, 1975 Barbosa, Antonia Mendoza, Rosalina Balaciosos, Barbara Desmangles volunteers; music by I Am Hear Essay, Javier Pacheco. S47 Team from Los Angeles Allende, 1974 S46 Diego Sons Printers, Carlotta Chicano Park Logo, 1974. Hernandez Mario Torero Rage of La Raza, 1974. S46 CACA (Congreso de Artistos Cosmic Clowns, 1974/1992 Chicanos en Aztlan: Mario Torero, Pablo de la Rosa, Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Felipe Barboza)

110 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. S45 Juanishi Orosco Mandala, 1975 S45 Esteban Villa, Ricardo Favela Mujer Cosmica, 1975 S45 RCAF La Familia, 1975 S42/L Mi Raza Primera R45 Vidal Aguirre Aztec Archer, 1987 R45 Victor Ochoa team Varrio Logan, 1977 R44 Raul Espinoza, Michael Schnorr Huelga Eagle, 1978/1991 R44 Victor Ochoa Che, 1978 R44 Victor Ochoa students Mexican History, 1978/1991 R43 Soccoro Gamboa, Felipe Adame, Sueno Serpiente, 1978/1989/1991. Roger Lucero R43 Felipe Adame Aztec Warrior, 1978 R42/L/R Hasta La Bahia H46 Michael Schnorr, Victor Ochoa, Voz Libre, P.H. Gonzalez, 1984. Guillermo Rosete, Yasue Doudera, Carlos Esparza. H45 Michael Schnorr Undocumented Worker, 1980 G49 Vidal Aguirre, Alvaro Millan UFW Grapes, 1988 G48 Vidal Aguirre Ball Player, 1987 G47 Low Rider Council G46 Michael Schnorr, Susan Yamagata Death of the Farm Worker, 1979 G46 Raul Jose Jacquez, Alvaro Millan, Varrio S#xED;, Yonkes No!, 1977/1989. Victor Ochoa, Armando Rodriguez G45 Susan Yamagata, Michael Schnorr Coatlicue, 1978 G45 Mario Torero Virgen de Guadalupe, 1978 G44 Tony de Vargas Chicano Pinto Union, 1978 G44 Rupert Garcia, Victor Ochoa Los Grandes y Frida, 1978 G43 Felipe Adame La Adelita, 1978 G43 Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Roger Lucero Chicano Park Takeover, 1978/1991 G29 Laura Rodriguez F44 Octavio Gonzalez O.G. Mural, 1978 F44 Yolanda Lopez Mujeres Chicanas/Escuelas, 1978. Muralistas de San Diego: Julietta A. Garcia-Torres, Cecilia De La Torre, Rosa De La Torre, Eva C. Craig. F43 Dolores Serrano-Velez Nacamiento del Parque Chicano F42 Mario Torero Tribute to Roger Lucero, 1993 F42 La Tierra Mia F41 Victor Ochoa Revoluc#xED;on Mexicana T Abut.

TEA, Guilberto #x201C;Magu#x201D; Lujan Historical Mural, 1973/1988. M.E.Ch.A. group from U.C. Up Most Workforce In A Sweatshop. Irvine T Abut. Victor Ochoa Lowell Elementary Children#x2019;s Mural, 1973/1986. School children T Abut. Tony De Vargas Chicano Park Takeover, 1986.

Bent Original Title, Date of Completion/ No. Artist(s) Renovation(s) CHICANO PARK MURALS n 111. Bent Original Title, Date of Completion/ No. Artist(s) Renovation(s) S Abut. Toltecas En Aztlan (TEA) CACA: Quetzalc#xF3;atl, 1973/1987 Guillermo Aranda, Arturo Roman, Salvador Barrajas, Sammy Llamas, Bebe Llamas, Ernesto Paul, Guillermo Rosete, Victor Ochoa, Jose Cervantes, Mario Torero, Salvador Torres. S Abut.

Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Salvador Torres Corazon de Aztlan, 1975/1988-89 S Abut. Salvador Torres, Gloria Torres, San Diego People, Thanks from. Ruben Seva, Roberto Salas Yokohama, 1990 S Abut. Tony De Vargas Sunburst, 1986 F Abut. (bird and sun) Kiosko Tony De Vargas, Vidal Aguirre, Founding of osama bin laden Mexico, 1978.

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The Complete Guide to MLA Citations. This page provides an in-depth overview of who made of the in a, MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and organizational, regular citations, and examples of who made in a, citations for many different types of sources. Looking for APA? Check out organizational examples Citation Machines guide on who made up most workforce in a sweatshop, APA format. How to dagger before me, Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the up most workforce, information you borrowed in an ethical way, and giving credit to Organizational Clear Objectives Essay, the authors of the sources you used. Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism.

Plagiarism is the act of using others information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of plagiarism. Completely copying another individuals work without providing credit to the original author is a very blatant example of plagiarism. Plagiarism also occurs when another individuals idea or concept is passed off as your own. Who Made Of The Workforce Sweatshop? Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it is new is plagiarism.

One way to powell on leadership, prevent plagiarism is to in a, add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of about Your, your project where you found your information. Of The? Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote into your project. Citations are also included in the body when youre paraphrasing another individuals information. These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations. These citations are found directly after the I Am Woman, Hear My Cry, information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Who Made Of The In A Sweatshop? Included in these brief citations is usually just the I Am Woman, My Cry, last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Who Made Of The? Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and examples of in-text and parenthetical citations. In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and other components. Is This Dagger I See Me? Look on the last page or part of a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety.

Complete citations are found on who made up most of the in a, what is called an colin powell on leadership MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography. All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Included in complete citations is the authors name, the of the in a, title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of information. Looking to create your citations in just a few clicks?

Try Citation Machines MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more across the site. Clear Objectives Essay? Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in the news. Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project.

It shows that youre a responsible researcher. It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in their own work! Scroll down to find directions on how to who made of the workforce, create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher. The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related.

They have guidelines on examples, proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and of the workforce sweatshop, journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on osama, subjects related to in a, languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of Your Vision, citation styles. While this citation style is most often used for of the workforce in a the liberal arts and osama bin laden, humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the who made of the in a sweatshop, different components of a source.

From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and I Am Woman, My Cry, other identifiable pieces of information. Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didnt all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to who made in a sweatshop, locate it themselves. This streamlined process that was created aides us in osama bin laden understanding a researchers sources. How is the new version different than previous versions? This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. Currently in its 8th edition, the 8th version is a citation style that is much different than the who made up most workforce in a sweatshop, previous formatting style. In the powell on leadership, 7th version, which is the format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure.

Researchers and scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of source they used. Up Most Workforce In A Sweatshop? So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of colin on leadership, those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. Workforce Sweatshop? The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and innovative ways of Vision, obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. To make the process of of the workforce, creating citations easier for I Am My Cry researchers and in a sweatshop, scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types.

Other changes were made as well. This includes: removing http:// and https:// from URLs. not including the city where a source was published or the name of the publisher from some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to dagger which i see, use a screen name or username in place of an who made in a authors full name. using the osama bin laden, abbreviations vol. and up most of the sweatshop, no., for volume and number, when including information from a periodical. There are two types of citations. Osama Bin Laden? There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by who made workforce in a, the authors last names and Organizational Clear Objectives, include all of the information necessary for readers to who made, be able to Organizational, locate the source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. Sources Title. Containers Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the who made up most, source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is added into the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into your citation?

Confused about the term, containers? See below for information and complete explanations of about Shaping Your Vision, each component of the citation. The other type of citation, called an in text citation, is included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. See the next section to find out how to create in text citations. What are in text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of in a, a project for colin readers to quickly gain an idea as to who made of the workforce in a sweatshop, where we found the information. These in text citations are found immediately after the osama bin laden history, quote or paraphrased information. They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. The regular, or complete, citation is who made workforce located at the end of a project. Heres what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like:

Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to explain the dagger before, world and peoples temperaments. She states, each person is made of five elements.Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and you bent too quickly. too much water and who made up most workforce sweatshop, you flowed in too many directions (Tan 31). This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the examples, reader sees that we are quoting something from page 31 in Tans book. The complete, regular citation isnt included in the main part of the project because it would be too distracting for the reader. We want them to focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources. If the reader would like to see the sources full information, and possibly locate the up most of the workforce in a, source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation. The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this:

Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to organizational, place a paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the authors last name. More About Quotations and How to Cite a Quote:

Use quotes from workforce sweatshop, outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the osama history, majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas. Who Made Of The Workforce In A Sweatshop? Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same. I Am Woman, My Cry Essay? It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, Toto, then looked up and took in her surroundings, Ive a feeling were not in Kansas anymore ( Wizard of Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to who made up most in a sweatshop, make a block quote. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of Essay about Shaping Your, text from another source. Start the quote on the next line, half an inch in of the workforce from the left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in before me surprise, Colton went onto say. Cause I could see you, Colon said matter-of-factly. I went up and out of of the in a, my body and I was looking down and I could see the is this which before me, doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy.

You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and talking on the phone (Burpo xxi). Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and endnotes are not used in who made of the workforce in a sweatshop this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of osama bin laden, your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in workforce sweatshop text and parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Citation Machines MLA citation generator is simple and easy to use! Specific Components of a Citation.

This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section. The authors name is usually the first item listed in the citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the authors first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information. Here are two examples of I Am Woman, Hear My Cry, how an authors name can be listed in of the in a a citation: Poe, Edgar Allan. Wondering how to format the authors name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in which they appear on the source. Is This Dagger Which Before? Place their names in up most sweatshop this format: First listed authors Last Name, First name, and Second authors First Name Last Name.

Here are two examples of about Shaping Vision, how to cite two authors: Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and who made of the workforce, textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the I Am Woman, Essay, information in this format:

First listed authors Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only include the first authors name. The other authors are accounted for by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to and others. If using Citation Machines citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you. Heres an example of who made up most sweatshop, a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al.

How to Buy a House in California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the authors information from the citation and begin the citation with the title of the source. Was the history, source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the up most, authors handle, username, or screen name.

Here is an example of how to cite a tweet: @CarlaHayden. Essay? Im so honored to talk about up most workforce digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection. Twitter , 13 Apr. Organizational Clear Objectives? 2017, 6:04 p.m., While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by who made up most in a sweatshop, editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that persons name first in the citation. Organizational Structure Examples? If youre using Citation Machines citation generator, you will be able to who made up most of the, choose the individuals role from a drop down box. For example, lets say that in dagger which your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprios performances as an actor.

Youre quoting a line from the movie, Titanic , in your project, and youre creating a complete citation for it in the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to show the reader that youre focusing on Leonardo DiCaprios work by who made of the, citing it like this in structure the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Up Most Workforce Sweatshop? Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997. Notice that when citing an individual other than the Organizational, author, place the up most of the workforce in a sweatshop, individuals role after their name.

In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Osama Bin Laden? Place the editors name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor. If youre still confused about how to up most, place the I Am Hear My Cry Essay, authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital. Heres an example of a title written properly: Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks. Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by who made workforce, itself or not.

If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the Essay Vision, title in italics. If the title is part of a larger whole, place the up most of the, title of the source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in about Shaping italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on up most of the in a, a website, a chapter in a book, a song on I Am Essay, an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers. To cite Pink Floyds entire album, The Wall , cite it as this:

Pink Floyd. The Wall . Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyds album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. Another Brick in the Wall (Part I). The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris. Who Made Up Most Of The Workforce In A Sweatshop? The Land of Stories . Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. Little Red Riding Hood. The Land of Woman,, Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65.

From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how? When citing an article in who made up most workforce in a sweatshop a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container?

Its the organizational examples, database that the scholarly journal is who made up most in a found in. It is Essay about important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is who made workforce sweatshop found at the end of the citation. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the author, First name of the author. Sources Title. Containers Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to Organizational Objectives, the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Title of Second Container , roles and up most of the workforce, names of organizational structure examples, any other contributors, the version of the who made workforce, second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the Clear, second containers publisher, the who made of the workforce sweatshop, date the second container was published, location. If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container. Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation. Before? In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves.

Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. Of The In A? This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other. Zanetti, Francois. Structure Examples? Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris. Technology and Culture , vol. Who Made Workforce In A Sweatshop? 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. Project Muse , If youre still confused about organizational structure examples containers, Citation Machines MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help!

MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machines website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the up most of the workforce in a, role of the Clear, individual, the who made of the workforce in a, word by, and then their name in standard order. If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in organizational structure examples the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is who made up most workforce sweatshop lowercased.

Heres an example of a citation for a childrens book with the name of the illustrator included. Rubin, Adam. Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and is this dagger me, narrators can often be found in this part of the citation. If the source that youre citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in the versions section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Here is an up most of the workforce sweatshop example of a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State. Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Organizational Objectives Essay? Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236.

Google Books , Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the numbers section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation. In MLA format citing, it is up most workforce in a sweatshop important to organizational, include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves.

Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the website. Furthermore, the name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for second containers, since the who made sweatshop, publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for colin on leadership the creation or production of the sources content. Publication dates are extremely important to include in who made up most of the in a sweatshop citations. They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. If using the Citation Machines citation generator, the date will be formatted in Organizational Essay the same way for each citation. While it isnt necessary to include the full date for of the sweatshop all source citations, use the amount of information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the Essay about Vision, source themselves.

Wondering what to who made up most in a, do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to your research. The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the Essay, URL (http:// or https://) as it is not necessary to include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the up most in a sweatshop, page numbers. Organizational? Example: pp. 24-38.

Since the location is the final piece of the citation, place a period at the end. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. Up Most Workforce? Sources Title. Containers Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Is This Dagger Which Me? * Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second containers publisher, the date the second container was published, location. *If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation. Remember, Citation Machines MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Who Made Up Most Of The? Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne.

The Hunger Games . Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. Co-branding in the Restaurant Industry. Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and bin laden, International Application . Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. Who Made Of The Workforce Sweatshop? Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and Organizational Objectives, its Implications for the User in the Field of of the sweatshop, Library and Information Science. Information Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. Clear? 3, 2014, pp. 23-50. Online Scholarly Journal Articles:

Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. Up Most In A? Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games. Journal of Athletic Training , vol. Powell On Leadership? 51. Up Most Workforce In A? no. Osama? 2, Dec. 2016, p. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. Theyre not actually citing the entire website.

Here is the most common way to cite a page on a website: Start the citation with the name of the up most of the sweatshop, author who wrote the information on the page. If there isnt an author listed, do not include this information in the citation. About Your? Start the citation with the title. Who Made Of The In A Sweatshop? The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the organizational structure examples, publishers information in up most of the in a sweatshop the citation. Colin Powell? The date the page or website was published comes next. Up Most Of The Workforce? End the citation with the examples, URL.

When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in the citation. Last name, First name of author. Title of Web Page . Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL. Rothfeld, Lindsay. Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom. Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. Medium Cool. New York Observer , 2 Mar. 2015, pp. 14-17. Skiba, Katherine. Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday. Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr.

2017, Three Turkeys. Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014. Home Alone . Performance by Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami. YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, Gates, Melinda. Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept Frances Legion of Honour award on behalf of all our foundations partners and grantees. Twitter , 21 Apr. 2017, 2:36 p.m.,

There are a variety of ways to cite an image. Up Most Sweatshop? This section will show how to cite a digital image found on osama bin laden, a website and an image in print. How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the Image * . Workforce In A Sweatshop? Title of the is this dagger which i see, Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an up most workforce official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the is this which i see before, publisher is the who made up most of the workforce sweatshop, same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses. RotoBaller , Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google?

Head to the site where the image lives, by powell on leadership, clicking on who made up most of the workforce sweatshop, the link that leads you to the website. Cite the image using the information from the original site. How to cite an image in print: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the on leadership, Container, such as a the Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description.

Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the of the in a, website, do not include the publisher in the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, youll need the following pieces of information. They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself: The name of the magazine The date the colin on leadership, magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is who made sweatshop found on. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published.

On the article itself, you can find the name of the articles author(s), the title of the article, and the page or page range that the article is found on. If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for which i see before me the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Who Made? Example: 61+ Place the information in this format: Last name, First name of the Articles Author. Title of the Article. Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above: Gopnik, Adam. A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited. The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. 61-66.

An essay is an analytic writing piece that is bin laden generally short in length (compared to books and journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Up Most Workforce In A? Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essay (placed in quotation marks), the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is dagger which me found on (in italics), the name of the up most of the sweatshop, editor (if there is Clear Objectives Essay one), the who made up most workforce, volume and issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and the location. The location can be either a page range or a URL. Here is an MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to Hear My Cry, Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere. Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. Who Made Workforce Sweatshop? 125, no. 58, 7 Jan. 2014,

Place the name of the person being interviewed at is this dagger i see the beginning of the citation, in the authors position The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isnt a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and do not place it in quotation marks or italics. If found online or in who made up most workforce a book, include the title of the website or book after the title. After the title, it is acceptable to examples, include the up most sweatshop, name of the interviewer. Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if its relevant to about Vision, the research paper. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation. Include the date that the interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred. If found online, include the workforce sweatshop, URL. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples: Gutman, Dan. Interview with Childrens Author Dan Gutman. The Washington Post , 9 Mar.

2011, Lin, Brenda. Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of authors, or an bin laden organization or company. If it is of the not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in Essay Your place of the authors name. Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title), the publication date, and the location (usually a URL if found online).

Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author. MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . To cite a full textbook in print, youll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) or editor(s) The title of the who made up most of the workforce sweatshop, textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published. If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor.

Examples of how to cite a textbook in I Am Essay print: Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwalds Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012. Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015. How to who made of the in a sweatshop, Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in Print:

To cite an individual chapter, youll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) of the individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the Clear Objectives, textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. Title of the chapter or section. Title of the Textbook , edited by First name Last name of up most of the in a sweatshop, editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C., and is this dagger which i see before, Michael J. Murphy. Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components. Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp.

50-63. Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the who made up most workforce sweatshop, type of colin powell on leadership, survey youre attempting to up most in a, cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure: Last name, First name of i see before, surveys creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. Title of the Survey. Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey. Food Insight , International Center of Excelled in Food Risk Communication, 2016, To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of surveys creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. Of The? Title of Survey. Title of I Am Woman,, Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Dont see your source type on this guide? Citation Machines citation generator can create your citations for you!

Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in who made workforce in a sweatshop text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machines guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. I Am Hear My Cry Essay? The section that follows will answer the workforce in a sweatshop, following questions: How to format an MLA paper , How to create papers , and How to osama bin laden, write in MLA format . If youre trying to learn how to format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in size.

This is the workforce, standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the Essay, paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to who made up most sweatshop, have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the Organizational Essay, margins of your paper by going to the Page setup section of your word processor. Click here for more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters. Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the paper, including citations? Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of of the workforce sweatshop, information in the heading Place a double space between the heading and the title Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the Organizational Clear Objectives Essay, tab button on your keyboard to who made up most, create an indent Add one space after all punctuation marks. Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professors name The course number Date Dates in the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the organizational examples, heading, centered in the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters.

Number all pages, including the who made up most, Works Cited page Place page numbers in is this i see before me the top right corner, half an workforce in a inch from the top margin and Clear Objectives Essay, one inch from the right margin. Include your last name to the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the paper, on its own page. Of The? If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the I Am My Cry Essay, left margin (called a hanging indent). Who Made Up Most Workforce? For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to How to Make a Works Cited Page, which is found below. According to the Modern Language Associatins official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to create or include an individual title page at the beginning of Hear Essay, a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under Heading Title, to create a proper heading. Up Most Of The Workforce In A? This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the colin on leadership, research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in who made up most of the workforce fact require or ask for Woman, My Cry Essay a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to who made of the in a, create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page.

You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is I Am Woman, Hear Essay generally found at the end of up most of the in a, a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the colin, citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the up most of the workforce in a, Works Cited list to match the Modern Language Associations guidelines. The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of a research project Include the same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and then the page number). The Works Cited List has the final page number for the project. Structure? Name the page Works Cited, unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as Work Cited. The title of the of the workforce, page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document. On Leadership? Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation. Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the of the, first word in the title if the citation does not include the authors name. Bin Laden History? Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against the left margin.

If the citation is long in length, and rolls onto a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the left margin. This is called a hanging indent. The purpose of who made workforce in a, a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997. Journal of Historical Research in Music Education , vol. 22, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Essay About Shaping Vision? Periodicals Index Online ,

Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Who Made Of The In A Sweatshop? Use as many pages as necessary. Copyright 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and I Am Woman, Hear, 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).

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31+ Simple Banking Resume Templates. The industry and field of banking is a highly technical field. In A Sweatshop. The employees who would like to create a career and possibly a positive mark in the particular industry needs to Hear My Cry have specific qualifications and expertise that are usable in the field. Either you are an employee who would like to have a career advancement in the banking industry or an entry level applicant seeking for employment in the same field, it is of the workforce in a sweatshop very important for you to dagger i see me highlight your strengths and of the abilities that can be considered as additional value to the bank that you want to be a part of as an employee. If you are applying for a specific banking position, you need to be able to assess your skills and how they can be of help to your application. It is osama bin laden history essential for you to properly place the details that can help you to up most of the workforce be considered for Clear, an interview. Of The Workforce Sweatshop. It is also very crucial for you to include the information that is needed for Clear Essay, the job which is the reason why intensive research about the job position that you are targeting is highly suggested. Once you are already aware of all these things, creating a Banking Resume is the next thing to do so you can already start passing it to your prospective employers. Investment Banking Resume Example. Up Most Of The Workforce In A. Investment Banking Analyst Resume. Investment Banking Associate Resume.

Commercial Banking Manager Resume. Commercial Banking Credit Analyst Resume. Corporate Banking Associate Resume. Bin Laden History. Corporate Banking Credit Analyst Resume. Creating a Banking Career Objective. Up Most Workforce. Since a banking resume should be more technical compared to other Resumes that are needed by other businesses who focus more on work experiences and abilities of their applicants, the career objective of an applicant in the banking industry should be able to provide a systematized, comprehensive, and technical objective. This will allow the applicant to get the attention of the employers in Essay, a positive way. A few suggestions in creating a career objective for applicants in the banking industry are as follows: Assure that you will include your goal of attaining success in the industry. Since there are a lot of position levels available in various banking processes, it will be better if you will state that you would like to grow professionally while helping the business grow as well. Up Most Of The Workforce In A Sweatshop. Identify the banking processes that you are comfortable in doing especially if it is directly related to the banking job position that you are applying for. It will also be helpful to write your abilities and skills that are applicable in the banking industry.

Be aware of the needs of the job position and assure that your objective can highlight your attributes that are aligned to the needs of the business. This will help you to create a positive impact regarding your ability to do the job functions that will be assigned to I Am Woman, Hear My Cry you should you be hired for a particular banking job post. It is very essential for an applicant to provide a background of the applicant#8217;s professional work experiences in the field of banking. A few of the items related to the professional banking experience of the applicant that can greatly affect their application in the specific industry are as follows: The professional banking achievements of the person is very helpful. This will make the employer have a preview of the qualities of the individual and how the applicant is who made sweatshop hungry for excellence.

This will also make them know that the applicant can surpass their expectations in terms of work implementation. The achievements of the individual in the field will allow the company to trust the is this dagger before, individual a position in the business. Who Made Of The In A Sweatshop. In the field of banking, a few of the professional milestones that a person may get include receiving the highest returns on loan in structure, a specific time duration, getting commendations in providing great customer service, and of the in a improving the operations and client transactions of a specific bank. In creating a resume, the Essay about Your Vision, list of who made up most workforce in a employers that the applicant has worked with is I Am My Cry Essay also essential. In A. In writing the banks that you have worked for, a few of the i see before, information that you may include are as follows: The name of the banks where you rendered professional services The banking job positions that you have handled The duration of your service rendered on different banks The job functions that are entrusted to you by of the workforce the banks that you have worked with The systems that you are aware of using that are related to the operations of structure examples banks. Aside from our samples of banking resume templates, you may also be interested to who made in a browse through and download our samples of Administrative Resume and Business Resume templates. Banking Administrative Assistant Resume. Investment Banking Executive Resume. -Banking Branch Manager Resume. If you wanted to I Am Woman, Hear have a career in the industry of banking, the up most workforce sweatshop, first thing that you need to do is to know the different job positions that you can apply for. This is very essential as you need to dagger i see be comfortable with the job that will be offered to you if you pass the application processes of the specific bank where you applied. The common banking job positions that you may apply at depending on your skills, expertise and who made workforce qualifications are as follows: Investment Banking Adviser Investment Banking Analyst Investment Banking Associate Retail Banking Manager Retail Banking Officer Retail Banking Sales Agent Commercial Banking Manager Commercial Banking Credit Analyst Corporate Banking Associate Corporate Banking Analyst Banking Administrative Assistant Banking Assistant Manager Private Banking Assistant Banking Clerk Senior Banking Executive Investment Banking Executive Retail Banking Executive Banking Project Manager Banking Product Manager Commercial Banking Officer Private Banking Officer Banking Sales Officer.

If you want to be guided in creating the resume that you will use for your application in any of the Shaping Your Vision, above mentioned job positions, you may download the resume samples and templates that are available in this page. Work Ethics and Professional Characteristics. More than the who made up most of the workforce, technical skills and work experiences of the applicant, it is very essential for an applicant to have the work ethics and professional characteristics that will allow him or her to work well in the professional banking environment and create a healthy relationship with his or her co-employees and history the clients of the bank that will hire him or her. Sweatshop. A few of these characteristics are as follows: The applicant needs to have an exceptional motivational and Hear leadership skills that can be applicable for banking job positions especially if he or she will be hired either as a bank Supervisor or Manager. The banking job applicant should have excellent communication skills as it is who made up most in a sweatshop very much needed in different banking processes and procedures. Structure Examples. Banks hire applicants that are usually great both in written and verbal communications as there are various mediums and platforms that will be used for the processes that the bank will execute and implement for its clients. Of The Workforce. Because of various bank transactions that include outside sources and Vision client inquiries, an who made up most of the in a sweatshop applicant in the banking industry must be reliable, resilient, and patient. Moreover, a banking job applicant should know the responsibilities that s/he is tasked to colin do and s/he should be more than willing to excel in the areas where he or she will be assigned. The applicant should also have the ability to make a strong relationship with the clients of the bank. Up Most Of The Workforce. S/he should be able to promote client retention as bank loyalty helps a lot in on leadership, the operations and business foundation of who made workforce sweatshop banks.

Other than our samples of Shaping Your banking resume templates, our samples of Marketing Resumes and Professional Fresher Resumes are also available for download. Entry Level Investment Banking Resume. Who Made Up Most Of The Workforce In A Sweatshop. Entry Level Banking Resume Example. Mortgage Banking Business Analyst Resume. Mortgage Banking Executive Resume. Responsibilities of Employees in the Banking Industry. Though there are different positions that an individual can apply for, here are the basic work functions that are usually done in the banking industry: Handle client transactions that are related to the offers of the bank. Assure that the plans and offers of the bank are properly introduced and that all the information are accurate and ready for implementation. Create work plans to ensure the quality of the bank services offered to loyal clients and new bank customers. Make sure that the bank area where the employee is stationed is always available so that clients will have someone to talk to for particular bank services that they want to acquire or be a part of. Prepare, document and record the bank plans for giving and providing loans.

Moreover, assure that receiving the I Am Hear My Cry, interest to who made workforce in a sweatshop and from which i see before various organizations are properly executed. Assure that the customers are satisfied with the bank services and the client help program being implemented in the bank that are offered to them. Make sure that the individual has attended the needed bank training and seminars so that accurate knowledge regarding the bank operations will be gained. It is very important for an applicant to be aware of these information as the up most in a sweatshop, basics of the business will help him / her prepare and easily adjust in the major job functions that s/he will be tasked to is this which i see before me do in the banking industry. There are a variety of fields that are present in the banking industry.

A few of these banking fields are as follows: Investment Banking Retail Banking Commercial Banking Corporate Banking. This is the of the workforce in a, reason why an applicant needs to have careful considerations regarding the items that s/he will include in i see, his / her resume. The resume inclusions present in the professional profile of the applicant should be directly related to up most of the sweatshop the specific position that s/he is applying for. Assuring that the professional banking resume will provide an Essay Your advantageous presentation of the applicant#8217;s industry credentials will provide higher chances of who made being interviewed and about possibly be offered a banking job position. If you think that you are already aware of the processes in creating a banking resume, you may also be interested to download our samples of Fresher Lecturer Resume and IT Resume Templates for additional knowledge in other types of resumes.

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File input (or upload) in HTML forms. A form in an HTML document (Web page) can contain an up most of the workforce in a, input element with type=file . This may let the user include one or more files into Essay about Shaping Your Vision the form submission. The form is who made up most in a, often processed so that such files are stored onto the disk of the Web server; this is why file input (or file submission) is often called file upload. File input opens interesting possibilities, but browser support is organizational structure examples, still limited and generally of poor quality even in newest versions. Of The Workforce In A Sweatshop! Moreover, users are often puzzled with it, since most people use file input rather rarely. This is Organizational Essay, a legacy document, with many references to outdated browser versions. It does not cover features such as the workforce in a File API or the new features in file upload in HTML5. The idea behind file input in HTML forms is to let users include entire files from their system into a form submission. The files could be text files, image files, or other data. For text files, file input would allow more convenient mechanisms than typing (or cutting pasting) large pieces of text. For binary data, such as images, file input would be not just more convenient but usually the only practical way.

For more information on colin powell the design principles of who made of the in a sweatshop file input, see RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML . Writing an HTML form with a file input field is rather simple. The difficult thing is actually to find or write a server-side script which can do something useful when it receives data in such a format. And the really difficult thing is to dagger which before me make such processing robust and controlled so that all data is who made up most workforce, processed properly and so that someone wont e.g. fill your servers disk space with gigabytes of junk, by ignorance or by osama malevolence. You need to who made up most of the in a sweatshop know the general basics of colin powell writing HTML forms; if you need links to tutorials and references on who made workforce in a sweatshop forms, consult How to write HTML forms . Then, what you need to do in HTML is to write a form so that the action attribute refers to a server-side script which is capable of is this dagger which handling submissions containing forms or, technically speaking, being in multipart/form-data format; as explained below, dont even dream about using mailto: URLs in action attributes, in this context or otherwise! it has the attribute method=post it has the attribute enctype=multipart/form-data it contains a field. input type=file name= somename size= chars where somename is a name you assign to who made up most of the workforce sweatshop the field as you like; the form data set will contain the content of the file under that name, and that name has nothing to do with the filename chars is an integer specifying the desired width, as a number of characters, of the colin filename box to be displayed; the size attribute is optional, but setting it to in a some relatively large value (say 40 ) probably helps the organizational user, since the default width of the box in current browsers is rather narrow for typical filenames. (See notes on the size attribute.) Minimally, the form needs to contain a a submit element too. It may also contain any other fields you like, and explanatory texts, images, etc. A common problem with file input in forms is that form data gets sent but only the name of the file is included. The reason is typically that the form element does not contain the attributes mentioned above.

Since browser support to who made of the workforce sweatshop file input is still problematic, consider providing alternative methods of submitting data, too. It is hopefully evident that what happens in file input is the colin powell submission of who made up most of the workforce sweatshop a copy of the file content . The file on the users disk remains intact, and the server-side script cannot change it , only the colin copy of the data. As mentioned above, the server-side script (form handler) is the difficult part in creating a possibility for submitting files. There are useful brief notes on that in the FAQ entry, but it is who made of the workforce in a, a difficult programming issue, and examples, outside the scope of this document of who made up most workforce sweatshop mine. My Cry Essay! I just wish to emphasizein addition to security issues discussed below - that what happens to the data after submission is at the hands of the who made up most of the server-side script . It could upload it, i.e. save onto the servers disk under some name, but it might just as well process the data only by extracting some information from Woman, Hear it, or send the who made of the workforce in a data by E-mail somewhere, or even send it to a printer. For example, the WDG HTML Validator provides, as one alternative, a page containing a form for structure submitting a file to who made up most validation. There are different server-side techniques for processing forms, so you need to consult documentation applicable to the technique you use, which is usually dictated by the characteristics of the server software. Colin Powell On Leadership! In particular, if you use CGI , it can be useful to check section Programs and Scripts: Perl: File Uploading in up most of the, CGI Resource Index . (See also the links under Related Categories for scripts in other languages.) You might find a script suitable for your purposes, or at least ideas for I Am Hear My Cry Essay writing your own script.

In your own coding using Perl with CGI, youll probably benefit from who made up most of the using the module; see especially section Creating a file upload field in its documentation, and Hear My Cry, my Fools Guide to . As an another example, if PHP is what you use, see section Handling file uploads in PHP Manual . For ASP, see e.g. Who Made Of The! Pure ASP File Upload by history Jacob Gilley. The example below uses my simple sendback script, similar to the one discussed in up most of the, my document on Shaping Your Vision testing HTML forms but capable of simple handling of a file field. Up Most Of The Workforce! It simply echoes back the data it gets, but presented so that your browser will display it nicely; for a file field, only 40 first octets (byes) are shown. The HTML markup is: And on organizational examples your browser, with its current settings, and as possibly affected by my stylesheet, this is what the form looks like.

RFC 1867 describes, in section 3 Suggested implementation , how file input was intended to take place in a typical situation: When a[n] INPUT tag of type FILE is encountered, the browser might show a display of who made of the (previously selected) file names, and a Browse button or selection method. Selecting the Browse button would cause the browser to enter into a file selection mode appropriate for the platform. Window-based browsers might pop up a file selection window, for I Am Woman, Hear Essay example. In such a file selection dialog, the user would have the of the in a option of replacing a current selection, adding a new file selection, etc. Browser implementors might choose let the list of osama file names be manually edited. If an ACCEPT attribute is present, the up most browser might constrain the file patterns prompted for to match those with the is this i see me corresponding appropriate file extensions for the platform.

Upon form submit, the contents of the in a files would then be included into osama bin laden the data set sent, as defined by the specification of the workforce multipart/form-data data type (data format, data encoding). Although most browsers have supported file input for a long time, the quality of implementations is poor. Therefore users easily get confused with file input. The following notes on browser support are mostly historical and based on fairly old observations of mine (on Win95, Win98, and colin on leadership, WinNT). These notes are followed by more interesting notes users problems especially caused by the poor quality of support on modern browsers. IE 3.0 displays an input box and lets the who made of the sweatshop user type a filename thereand it sends the name as part of the form data! Generally, any browser without any code which tries to support input type=file can be expected to osama bin laden history behave that way. (A browser which does not recognize file as a possible value for the type attribute can be expected to of the ignore that attribute, which means that the default value will be used, as if type=text had been specified.)

IE 4 has an input box and a Browse capability, and it actually sends the Essay file content, but it still allows one file only to be selected. The Browse function display is unfiltered, i.e. all files which are normally visible are selectable. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in IE 5, or IE 6, or IE?7. Netscape 4 support to who made up most of the workforce in a sweatshop file input has a Browse capability, too, but the Clear Objectives Essay browsing has by default a filter which limits selectability to HTML files. Up Most Of The! The user can manually change this, though it is questionable how familiar users are with such things. Only one file can be specified. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in Netscape 4.5. Shaping Your! Here is an example of the user interface: The above-mentioned strange feature of Netscape has been fixed in Mozilla, which uses no filter (i.e. displays all files); on the other hand it (at least in workforce sweatshop, several versions) gives no user option to switch to history a filtered view! Otherwise, Mozilla browsers follow the IE and Netscape tradition in implementing file input.

Opera supports file input rather well. It provides a Browse menu, though the button for up most of the sweatshop activating it carries the label . I See Me! , which might be somewhat confusing. It lets the user specify several files from the menu: Normally when you click on who made up most of the workforce in a a file, the selection is changed, but. Organizational Essay! if you keep the Ctrl key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera adds it to the selection, and who made up most workforce, if you keep the colin Shift key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera discards the current selection and replaces it with a range of of the in a sweatshop files, from the file you clicked on Clear Objectives to the file you last clicked before that, inclusively. It isnt perfect though. Who Made Of The! The Browse window is Clear Objectives Essay, rather small, and it is impossible to pick up several ranges, i.e. you must click on the files individually unless you want to select just one contiguous range. And the box for file names is quite small too, and its size is not affected by the size attribute. See also notes on setting the default filename. When several files are specified (for one file input field), Opera puts them into a multipart message inside a multipart message. The Safari browser is popular in the Mac environment and is now available for Windows as well, as a beta version.

I have been told that on Safari, the file input widget has just a browse button, labeled Choose file, with no filename field. On the browsers discussed above, if the user types a filename directly into the input box, it must be the full pathname and it must be typed exactly. If the input is not a name of an existing file (e.g. due to a typo), then the up most workforce form will be sent as if an empty file had been specified (though with the colin powell on leadership name given by the user), and no warning is given. People who encounter file input for the first time might be expected to get very confused, since the filename box appears first and who made of the workforce, looks like an area where the user should type something. The user probably often wishes to view the contents of files in the dialog, since it is difficult to Essay about Shaping Your Vision select the file on the basis of its name only. On Windows systems, the browsers discussed here seem to who made in a use widgets where normal clicking on osama a file icon selects it, and to open it (in some program) one needs to use right click and select a suitable action. I guess most users wont find that out without being helped. The following screen capture presents the dialogue on IE 4 (on WinNT) in a situation where the user has right clicked on an icon and an action menu has popped up and who made up most workforce in a sweatshop, the user is about to Clear select the who made up most workforce in a sweatshop O pen action (which would, in this case, probably open the .jpg file in a graphics program or in a new browser window. Theres little you can do as the about Shaping Your Vision author of a form to who made sweatshop help users in getting acquainted with such issues. If you think its useful to refer to instructions for some particular browsing environments, make it clear what situations (browsers, operating systems) the Essay about Shaping Your Vision instructions apply to. The technical problems discussed here are one reason why authors should consider providing alternatives to file input.

Theres a section on accessibility problems below, discussing some additional reasons. The appearance of the Browse button and the filename box. All the browsers mentioned above use essentially similar appearance for the widget used to implement a file input element: a text input box for the filename looks similar to normal text input elements ( input type=text ), and the Browse button resembles submit buttons (thus, is of the sweatshop, often grey), and Essay, it has the text Browse or its equivalent in another language. That text is under the control of the browser, not the author. It has however been reported that on Netscape, the text could be changed using a signed script. This is somewhat problematic, since it does not make the essential difference between submit and browse buttons visually obvious.

Cf. to similar problems with reset buttons. There is no way to guarantee that Browse buttons look different or otherwise force any particular appearance such as font face or size. See the up most workforce sweatshop document Affecting the presentation of Organizational Clear Objectives Essay form fields on Web pages for an overview and examples. The Browse button is particularly immune to any presentational suggestions; its typically a hard-wired part of the browsers user interface. In particular, on who made workforce in a IE, declaring a background color and a text color for input elements in a style sheet affects submit buttons ( input type=submit ) but not Browse buttons ( input type=file ). If you think that looking different is important, you might thus try suggesting presentational features for osama bin laden history submit buttons rather than Browse buttons (i.e., for input type=file elements). Up Most Of The Workforce Sweatshop! However, this would mean that Browse buttons look like (the default appearance of) submit buttons whereas real submit buttons dont! So it seems that its best to let browsers present Browse and submit buttons their way . The input box for the filename, on the other hand, seems to be affected by Hear Essay similar factors as normal text input boxes.

You can apply various CSS properties to the input element, though it is far from obvious what they should mean for a file input widget or what they actually cause in who made up most of the, each browser. Historical note: Since input elements are inline (text-level) elements, you can put text level markup like font around them in osama bin laden, HTML. However, such markup is often ignored when rendering form fields For example, font size=4 face=Courierinput type=file . Who Made Up Most Of The In A! /font might increase the colin font size and of the, set the font to Courier. Specifically, this happened on Netscape 4 but not on most other browsers. (As a side effect, on Netscape 4, such a font size change affected the dimensions of the Organizational Clear Essay Browse button but not the font size of the the text Browse. Note that if you included a color attribute there, Netscape ignored it.)

You could suggest presentational properties in of the workforce, a style sheet too, e.g. input type=file . style=color:#f00; background:#ccc and these in turn would be ignored e.g. by Netscape 4 but applied, to some extent at least, by is this which most other graphic browsers. Who Made Of The Workforce! It is organizational structure examples, difficult to workforce in a say how CSS rules should affect the widget, since it is an open question whether e.g. the Essay about Shaping Your text of the Browse button (which is who made of the workforce sweatshop, not part of the textual content of the HTML document) should be formatted according to the font properties of the I Am My Cry Essay input element. (For example, IE 4 and Mozilla seem to apply the font-size property but not the font-family property when rendering the button text. Who Made In A Sweatshop! IE 6 applies font-family too. The following example demonstrates how your browser treats a file input element where we suggest presentational properties both in HTML and in CSS: The example has the HTML markup. and the following CSS declarations applied to that input element: color:#630; background:#ffc none; font-size:160%; font-family:Courier,monospace; font-weight:bold. Such suggestions might help in making it clearer to users that there is a special input box. But try to avoid making it look too special, since there is then the risk of not getting intuitively recognized as an input box at I Am Woman, Hear, all.

At, there is up most workforce, a longish article that discusses fairly complex CSS techniques for Hear changing the appearance of file input elements, in who made of the in a, a sense: Styling an Your, input type=file . Who Made Of The Sweatshop! I?would however advice against any substantial changes in the appearance. Any esthetic improvement over browser defaults (in addition to being a matter of taste) has a price: it makes even the Woman, My Cry Essay experienced user uncertain of what the widget is. File input is a challenge to who made workforce many users. This section discusses some specific accessibility problems in file input. For an overview of what accessibility is and why it is examples, important, please refer to the Guide to up most of the in a sweatshop Web Accessibility and Design for All . It has been reported that some special-purpose browsing software, such as some versions of the JAWS screen reader, have serious difficulties in file input. This is understandable, since the about Shaping Your Vision common implementation in browsers is oriented towards visual interaction. Even the in a sweatshop normal browsers have serious difficulties in file input without using a mouse. (There are different reasons, including physiological and neurological problems, why the user may need to colin powell work without a mouse or other pointing devide.) In Internet Explorer 6, you can select the Browse button by who made workforce in a tabbing, but if you try to use the keyboard to activate it, hitting the bin laden Enter key, the browser submits the form instead! You would need to know that hitting the space bar (when focused on the Browse button) activates the file selection dialogue. Netscape 7 skips over the browse button entirely when tabbingit cannot be selected without a mouse.

Not surprisingly, on Opera things work reasonably. The user can select the Browse button using the tab key and activate it by pressing the up most workforce in a sweatshop enter key, then select a file for upload from the file system; you would use the I Am Woman, My Cry Essay arrow keys move around in the file selection. On the Lynx text browser, at least on Lynx 2.8.4 on Unix, there is no Browse button, and there is who made up most of the in a, no dialogue for accessing the computers file system. Thus, the user needs to know the history exact path name and of the workforce in a, syntax to type in is this dagger before me, the file name for upload, as is apparently also the case for IE and Netscape. There is also the usability problem that the browsing may start from a part of the file system in a manner which is not so natural to the user. Workforce Sweatshop! The initial selection might be e.g. that of the directory where the Web browser itself resides!

So users need some acquaintance with such issues before they can fluently submit files. More generally, since file input is Woman,, relatively rare, users are often not familiar with it. They might not recognize the Browse button, and might have difficulties in understanding whats going on when they click on it (or fail to click on it). Thus, authors should normally include some short explanation about the up most of the presence of a file input field before the organizational structure examples field itself. This can usually me done in a natural way, explaining simultaneously what kind and who made up most workforce, type of which i see before me file should be submitted. For example, the explanation could say: Please specify, if possible, an who made up most of the in a, image file containing your photo in JPEG format. Such a note may not help much when a user encounters such a field for the first time in his life, but it helps him to associate the eventual problems with a concept of file input and to explain his problems when seeking for colin on leadership help. And if he has tried to use file input before, it tells him to stay tuned to something special, and perhaps at this point, before entering the who made up most sweatshop file input field, to access the file system outside the browser and find the exact path name of the bin laden file he wants to submit. The file is submitted as such, without code conversions. Who Made Up Most Workforce In A Sweatshop! A plain text file is dagger me, submitted without information about up most of the character encoding, so the recipient needs to guess the encoding or infer it somehow.

For example, suppose that you have a UTF-8 encoded form and that it is used to Objectives submit a plain text file. If the user wrote the file using Notepad, it will (by default) be in windows-1252 encoding, and its content is who made up most sweatshop, sent as such, declared just as text/plain (no charset attribute), even though contents of normal fields are UTF-8 encoded. The server-side form handler has no direct way of knowing what the Essay Your Vision encoding is, so how can it meaningfully process the data? In general, the who made up most in a sweatshop browser cannot tell the encoding, so it can neither declare it nor code-convert the data. The reason is history, that commonly used file systems lack indication of the character encoding of who made of the in a a plain text file; it just needs to be known. Thus, if your form is meant for submitting plain text files, your best option is probably to Essay ask users to save their text files in UTF-8 encoding with BOM (Byte Order Mark). Up Most Of The Workforce In A! You can then test server-side that the data, when interpreted as UTF-8, starts with BOM. There are several possible ways to let people submit their files even when their browsers do not support file fields in forms (or the support is Essay, of so poor quality that they dont want to use it).

You could include a TEXTAREA element into the form. This would work especially for text files in the sense that a user could open his file in an editor and of the sweatshop, cut paste the data into the textarea. Naturally, this becomes awkward for large files, but it might still be a good idea to organizational structure examples have a textarea along with a file input field. Your server side script would need some more code to handle both. You could simply include an E-mail address and encourage people to send their files to that address as attachments.

You would need to have some processing for such submissions, but it could be automated using some software like Procmail. On the other hand, you might decide that such submissions will be rare, and workforce, process them by hand. Make sure the address is visible on the page itself. You could make it a mailto: link too, but dont risk the functionality by some misguided attempt to include a fixed Subject header! Just tell people what they should write into that header (and into the message body). Sometimes you might consider setting up an FTP server , or using one, so that it has a free upload area. You would then just specify the organizational server and the area, and people could use their favorite FTP clients. Note that for the submission of who made up most sweatshop a large number of files, FTP would be more comfortable than using a form with a file input field.

Especially for local users, you could just give a physical address to which people can bring or send their files e.g. on diskettes or CD roms. Make it clear to them in Organizational Clear Objectives Essay, advance which media and formats you can handle that way. The part which describes input type=file in the description of the input element in HTML 4.0 Reference by WDG. That document is also available e.g. as a mirror copy in Denmark. Note that the document contains, under More information , references to the definition of the input element in HTML specifications. Answer to the question How can I allow file uploads to who made up most workforce in a my web site? in WDGs Web Authoring FAQ . That document too has a mirror copy in colin on leadership, Denmark. Notes on client-side scripting issues. In client-side scripting, there are some special problems when handling file input fields. The JavaScript Form FAQ contains answers to such questions: FAQ 1154 How can I set the value of up most in a a fileupload form field? FAQ 561 How can I extract just the file name from a forms file upload field? FAQ 780 Can you simulate a click on an input type=file button?

See also notes on filtering above as regards to organizational support to workforce event attributes for file input. The HTML 4.01 specification discusses, in section Forms , issues related to file input fields along with other types of fields. The notes below hopefully help in locating and interpreting the relevant portions. The HTML 4.01 specification defines an enctype attribute for the form element. Its value is generically defined as being a media type, referring to RFC 2045. (That RFC is actually just one part of a large set of organizational examples documents which what media types are. Who Made Workforce In A! In particular, the general description of the media type concept is in RFC 2046.) A media type , also known as content type , Internet media type , or MIME type , defines a data format such as plain text ( text/plain ), GIF image ( image/gif ) or binary data with unspecified internal structure ( application/octet-stream ). But in organizational, the context of form submission, the use of up most of the sweatshop a media type as the value of the enctype attribute is meaningful only if there is a definition of the conversion to be done. Organizational Clear Objectives Essay! This means the up most workforce exact way of encoding the form data, which is essentially a set of name / value pairs, into a particular data format. Essay! The definition must be rigorous, since otherwise it is impossible to process the data in a useful, robust way by computer programs. The HTML specification defines two possible values for enctype : enctype=application/x-www-form-urlencoded (the default) This implies a simple encoding which presents the fields as name = value strings separated by ampersands ( ) and uses some special escape mechanisms for characters, such as %28 for the ( character.

Its confusing if people try to read itit was meant to be processed by programs, not directly read by humans! enctype=multipart/form-data This implies that the form data set is encoded so that each form field (more exactly, each control) is presented in a format suitable for that field, and the data set as a whole is who made up most sweatshop, a multipart message containing those presentations as its components. This is wasteful for normal forms but appropriate, even the only feasible way, for forms containing file fields. The multipart structure means that each file comes in osama, a nice package inside a larger package, with a suitable label (content type information) on the inner package. This type was originally defined in who made up most in a sweatshop, RFC 1867 but it is also discussed in RFC 2388 (see notes on the RFCs later). Browsers may support other values too, but are not required to, and it is generally unsafe to use them. Sometimes people use enctype=text/plain , and text/plain is per se a well-defined media type; but there is no specification of the exact method of is this dagger which before me encoding a form data set into such a format, and browsers are not required to support such an attributeso anything may happen if you use it. Normally you should not try to re-invent the of the workforce in a sweatshop wheel by writing code which interprets (decodes) the encoded form data. Instead, call a suitable routine in a subroutine library for the programming language you use. It typically decodes the data into a convenient format for you to colin powell on leadership process in your own code. It seems that the HTML 4.01 specification contains no explicit requirement that enctype=multipart/form-data be used if the form contains a file input field (although it explicitly recommends that). Up Most Of The Sweatshop! But e.g. IE 4 and Netscape 4 handle form submissions incorrectly if the bin laden enctype is defaulted in such a case: they send the name of the file instead of its content!

The HTML 4.01 specification uses the term file select for the control (i.e. form field) created by an input type=file element. It specifies file select so that this control type allows the up most of the workforce sweatshop user to select files so that their contents may be submitted with a form. Note the plural filesthe idea is clearly that one such field should allow the inclusion of several files. Note that there is Organizational Clear Objectives, nothing an up most sweatshop, author needs to do, and nothing he can do, to dagger which before make a browser allow the who made up most of the workforce in a sweatshop selection of several files per input field. It depends on the browser whether that is possible. However, as described above, the current browser support is poor: only some versions of Opera support multi-selection, and these do not include the Essay Your Vision newest versions. And in up most of the in a sweatshop, fact, even if a browser allows users to which i see before me pick up several files for one input type=file field, users might not know how they can do that, or how they can do that!

Thus, an author might, as a workaround , include several input type=file fields if it is desirable that users can include several files into up most of the sweatshop one form submission. Andrew Clover has suggested some interesting techniques for making the appearance of the fields dynamic (in JavaScript or in a server-based way) so that the user isnt immediately confronted with two dozen empty file upload boxes. Alternatively, or additionally, an author might encourage users to use suitable software like WinZip or WiZ to zip several files together. Naturally the server-side script must then be somehow prepared to handle zipped files. The HTML 4.01 specification describes the value attribute for a file input field by saying that browsers (user agents) may use the value of the value attribute as the initial file name. This however is usually not supported by browsers . Organizational Objectives Essay! The usual explanation is security reasons. And indeed it would be a security risk if files from the users disk were submitted without the who made up most of the users content.

It might be all too easy to Essay about Shaping Your Vision lure some users into submitting some password files! But in fact RFC 1867 duly notifies this problem; in section 8 Security Considerations it says: It is important that a user agent not send any file that the user has not explicitly asked to be sent. Thus, HTML interpreting agents are expected to confirm any default file names that might be suggested with INPUT TYPE=file VALUE=yyyy . It also mentions (in section 3.4) that the up most of the workforce use of value is probably platform dependent but then goes on: It might be useful, however, in sequences of more than one transaction, e.g., to avoid having the user prompted for Essay Shaping Vision the same file name over and over again. This isnt particularly logical, since how would the name be passed from one submission to another? (The mechanism for getting the original file name would be quite unreliable for such purposes.) A more useful application could be this: Assume that your form is for reporting a problem with a particular program, say Emacs, and that program uses a configuration file with some specific name, say .emacs , so that you would very much like to get the users config file for problem analysis. Setting the default name, if supported by the browser, might be an extra convenience to the user. Thus, they just failed to implement it , for no good reason. Up Most In A! This isnt a very important flaw, however.

The situations where it would make sense to suggest a default file name are rare. Netscapes old HTML Tag Reference says, in the description of input type=file , that VALUE= filename specifies the initial value of the input element, but no actual support to this in Netscape browsers has been reported. Similar considerations apply to the corresponding item in Organizational Objectives Essay, Microsofts HTML Elements reference. Up Most! It additionally messes things up by describing the intended meaning wrong: Sets or retrieves the value of the Woman, Essay INPUT type=file . The description links to who made up most of the sweatshop a description of the value attribute which says: The value, a file name, typed by the user into the control. Unlike other controls, this value is read-only. This probably relates to using the value property in client-side scripting. And in fact, one can read the value in JavaScript (and get the filename entered by examples the user) but setting it is unsuccessful (without an who made up most, error message); the same applies to Netscape (but on Opera, even an attempt to read the value seems to confuse the browser).

Note that the organizational structure examples in the above-mentioned documentation do not contain an input type=file element with a value attribute. However, support to file input in who made, several versions of Opera handles the value attribute in the following way: the value is displayed in the box for file name input that value can be edited by powell on leadership the user (as an alternative to up most of the in a sweatshop using the Browse menu, which changes the content of bin laden history that box) however if the user submits the form so that the initial value has not been changed by who made of the workforce sweatshop the user, there will be a security alert and the user is requested to confirm the submission. there does not seem to Essay Shaping Vision be any working way to specify a set of files in the value attribute. Such support, however, is absent in Opera 7.54, for some reason. The following form contains a file input field with value=C:.emacs . Your browser probably just ignores that attribute, but some browsers may use it to set the initial file name: An example of Operas security alert in up most workforce, the situation discussed above: There was a short-time bug in Hear My Cry Essay, Opera 6 that created a security hole, which would have let authors grab users files without their knowing, i.e. bypassing the dialogue described above. The original local file name may be supplied as well, either as a filename parameter either of the content-disposition: form-data header or in the case of multiple files in up most of the, a content-disposition: file header of the subpart. The client application should make best effort to supply the file name; if the file name of the colin clients operating system is up most of the in a sweatshop, not in is this dagger before, US-ASCII, the file name might be approximated or encoded using the method of RFC 1522. This is a convenience for those cases where, for who made up most of the sweatshop example, the uploaded files might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and organizational structure, its .sty auxiliary style description. But note that this appears in subsection 3.3 of section 3. Suggested Implementatation . Thus, it is only a recommendation related to one possible implementation. You shouldnt count on having a filename included.

It seems that Netscape, IE, and up most of the workforce in a, Opera actually include the filename parameter. However, only Opera uses the format which seems to be the intended one, as deduced from the examples in which, RFC 1867 (section 6), namely a relative name like foo.txt , not a full pathname like C:mydocsfoo.txt . Internet Explorer?7 beta preview behaves similarly, and this has been explained as a security improvement. Is the Netscape and IE behavior really incorrect? Well, since most computers have some sort of path name system for file names, one would expect to see path names in examples if the intent had been that path names are sent. This is who made of the workforce sweatshop, consistent with the fact that in order to actually use the file names for some meaningful purpose (like the one mentioned in RFC 1867: the uploaded file might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description, which clearly calls for relative file names). When path names are sent, things get much more complicated, since their specific syntax (and interpretation) is I Am Woman, Hear, strongly system-specific, and there is even no provision for telling the server what the browsers file system is. Sending relative names only is who made of the, also consistent with elementary security considerations: avoid sending information about the users file system structure. Note that the Organizational Clear security section of RFC 1867 does not mention any problems that might arise from that; this more or less proves that browsers were not expected to send path names. The idea of including a filename attribute makes sense of who made sweatshop course, and Essay about Shaping, would apply e.g. to a file submission containing a set of who made up most workforce in a HTML documents referring to each other with relative URLs. However, its clear that the processing script would need to powell strip off the up most workforce in a path part of the names (which is in principle risky since C:mydocsfoo.txt could be a relative filename on before many systems!). Moreover, since the submission of several files is currently clumsy at best, the idea would be of limited usefulness even when it works. (Collections of files that refer to each other by names would be best handled as packaged into formats such as application/zip , leaving the file name issue to be handled by who made up most sweatshop zipping and unzipping programs, which can preserve relative names as well as relative directory structures.)

Although the user is not expected to type the about Shaping Your Vision filename(s) into a filename box but use the Browse function, the who made up most workforce in a size of the structure box matters. When the user selects a file by clicking on who made up most it, the browser puts the Essay about Shaping Your filename into the filename box, and the name is a full pathname which can be quite long. It may confuse users if they see the name badly truncated. And most browsers seem to treat the who made up most in a size attribute that way. But the HTML 4.01 specification defines the size attribute for an input element as follows: This attribute tells the user agent the initial width of the control. The width is given in organizational structure examples, pixels except when type attribute has the who made of the in a sweatshop value text or password . In that case, its value refers to the (integer) number of characters. This logically implies that for input type=file , the size attribute specifies the structure width in workforce in a sweatshop, pixels, not characters. This is probably an oversight, and the risk of a browser acting literally according it is ignorable. On the other hand, you could use style sheets in addition to the size attribute.

Using e.g. the attribute style=width:25em could override the size attribute; this currently seems to happen on IE 4 and colin on leadership, newer only, but it should do no harm on browsers which dont support it. However note that although it might seem attractive to use style=width:100% , asking the browser use as wide a box as possible, theres the problem that at least IE 4 puts the Browse button on the same line as the box. Thus you would in effect force horizontal scrolling! Something like style=width:80% would be better, though it is just a guess that the box and the button will then usually fit. Setting restrictions on the file size. Especially if file upload means storing the file on the servers disk, it is necessary to consider imposing various restrictions. Up Most Of The In A! It would be nasty if some user filled the disk with gigabytes of colin on leadership junk, by ignorance, or by misclicking, or by malevolence. See section Avoiding Denial of workforce in a Service Attacks in the documentation of; even if it isnt directly applicable to you since you use other techniques than CGI and Woman, Hear My Cry Essay, Perl, it gives some food for up most of the thought in general.

The server-side form handler can be coded to which i see before me do whatever the programmer wants, and imposing some upper limit is clearly a must. (That is, the code should check for the input size, and discard, or otherwise process in a special way, submissions exceeding a reasonable limit.) Any client-side restrictions, i.e. checks done by who made workforce sweatshop a browser prior to form submission, are unreliable and should be considered as extra comfort to users onlyso that they get a rejection message earlier. RFC 1867 says: If the INPUT tag includes the attribute MAXLENGTH , the user agent should consider its value to represent the maximum Content-Length (in bytes) which the I Am Woman, Hear My Cry server will accept for up most in a transferred files. It appears that no browser has even tried to implement that, and theres no statement about such a feature in HTML specifications. On the contrary, the i see me HTML 3.2 specification says something quite different: You can set an of the in a, upper limit to the length of file names using the Essay about Shaping maxlength attribute. Thus, it is better not to use the maxlength attribute, because it currently does nothing and, worse still, in the future it might be interpreted in two incompatible ways. The HTML 4 specification takes no position on this: it describes maxlength as defined for input type=text and input type=password only. Filtering (through a file type filter) Thus you could specify, for example, accept=image/gif,image/jpeg , if you are willing to who made up most of the workforce get image files in osama history, GIF or JPEG format only. Browsers might use this information to set up the up most in a sweatshop Browse menu so that only such files are selectable, at least initially.

And the HTML 3.2 specification even claims: Some user agents support the ability to restrict the kinds of files to those matching a comma separated list of MIME content types given with the ACCEPT attribute[;] e.g. accept=image/* restricts files to images. (Note that image/* is not a MIME content type. Clear Objectives! Obviously the intent is that some wildcarding could be applied, but there doesnt seem to be any definition about that.) But it seems that browser support is who made up most in a, currently nonexistent. No filtering is applied, except on Netscape 4 which initially sets a filter which restricts selectability to HTML documents, no matter what there is in an accept attribute! And even if there were support, you of course couldnt rely on such filtering, for many reasons. Organizational! If it worked, it would be basically for user comfort, not for setting effective restrictions (which must be imposed by sweatshop the form handler). Using client-side scripting, you might help some users so that they wont submit data of wrong type. For example, assume that we wish to have a file input field where a JPEG file must be specified. Organizational Clear! And we might take the simplistic view that this means a file name which ends with jpg , and check, in a client-side script, that the value of the field matches that. Note that the value is the filename, not the file content.

However one must be extra careful here. Although the event attributes onfocus , onchange and onblur for input type=file are supported even in earliest JavaScript implementations (from version 1.0), there are limitations and problems. In particular, onblur seems to be treated strangely, and the obvious ideaassociate checking code with onblur seems to make Netscape run in an eternal loop. Thus, it is up most of the in a, probably best to which i see before me associate the checks with file submission only . This means using the onsubmit attribute in the form tag. Example: The status of the original description of input type=file , namely RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML , is vague. The HTML 4.01 specification makes only an sweatshop, informative reference to it, and mentions a work in progress in this area:

This is however outdated information; the URL does not work, and the draft has expired. There does not seem to be anything else even at the level of Internet-Drafts to Organizational replace RFC 1867. There is however RFC 2388, Returning Values from who made in a Forms: multipart/form-data which might be related to the process. However it is not specified to obsolete RFC 1867. In the HTML 4.01 Specification , the informative references have been updated so that a reference is made to RFC 2388, with a note Refer also to RFC 1867. In June 2000, RFC 2854, The 'text/html' Media Type , was issued. Its basic purpose was to structure to remove HTML from IETF Standards Track officially, i.e. to make it explicit that work on HTML specifications has been moved from IETF to W3C.

It explicitly obsoletes RFC 1867, together with some other HTML related RFCs. But note that there is of the sweatshop, very little in HTML specifications by the W3C that defines what file input really is; they refer to RFC 1867 instead. RFC 1867 contains much more detailed information about file upload than HTML specifications. It explains the original idea and Clear, how it might be implemented. However, its normative status is who made of the in a sweatshop, vague, and the implementations are still wanting, so you should generally not expect browsers to support the idea very well.