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resume merise Le texte ci-dessous prsente les ides directrice en caractres gras afin de faciliter le reprage visuel lors d'une lecture l'cran. Les schmas insrs dans ce texte sont raliss avec le logiciel Flash (tracs vectoriels). Pour une version enregistrable (schmas en .gif) : Cliquer ici. Afin de bien diffrencier le factuel du commentaire, ces derniers figurent en couleur grise. Cette tude est directement inspire par une activit d'enseignement et d'une pratique professionnelle de plusieurs annes. Summary? Elle n'a donc aucune prtention une parfaite orthodoxie : La rigueur n'exclut pas le pragmatisme. Tout en fuyant le charabia, elle respecte le vocabulaire merisien (cycle d'abstraction, modle conceptuel des donnes etc.) qui a le louable intrt de dsigner sans ambiguit chaque tape, d'viter les dviances smantiques, et, au bout du compte, de permettre un dialogue immdiat entre les membres d'une quipe htrogne. Qu'est-ce que Merise ? Selon ses auteurs, ce n'tait pas une mthode d'analyse informatique. Electric Blanket? Merise avait un objectif beaucoup plus vaste, puisque ce devait tre une dmarche de construction de systme d'information , incluant, entre autres, l'informatique.

A quoi sert Merise ? Dans les faits, l'informatique : En ce qui concerne les donnes : A identifier le nombre et la nature des tables, les articulations et la ventilation des informations entre ces tables, afin que l'ensemble soit le plus efficace et volutif possible, Pour les traitements : A identifier les fonctionnalits selon une approche top / down (du gnral au particulier), leur dcoupages et leurs enchanements. En somme, et loin de toute rponse acadmique, Merise est un travail d' anticipation : Elle sert prparer les dveloppements informatiques et chiffrer (en cot, en temps et en nergie) ces chantiers, quelle que soit leur chelle (l'approche Merise n'est en rien rserve aux mga-projets !). Merise part de l'ide selon laquelle la ralit dont elle doit rendre compte n'est pas linaire, mais peut tre dfinie comme la rsultante d'une progression, mene de front, selon trois axes, qualifis de cycles. MAITRISE DE LA CHRONOLOGIE DES OPERATIONS (Cycle de vie) : Grce une suite de comptes-rendus dont l'objet est, chaque stade, trs prcis. Le schma directeur : Il s'agit de la traduction de la stratgie de l'entreprise. Summary For Godot? Il a la particularit d'tre volutif , sous peine de se primer. Types Of Ethics? Il a pour objet de clarifier les centres d'intrt, les ples de dcision, et de donner une premire ide de la chronologie des vnements. L'tude pralable : Ce document doit permettre une premire mesure de l' impact financier et administratif des grandes orientations dfinies dans le schma directeur. Il comporte : L'tude de l'existant La dfinition du Quoi ? futur (MCD et MCT) Le scnario (cot, impact sur l'organisation etc.) Le graphe de circulation de l'information pour les procdures les plus reprsentatives. Summary? Une premire approximation quant aux choix de matriels et de logiciels, ainsi qu'une estimation du volume de l'information qui sera traite.

L'tude dtaille : La dfinition du Qui ?, du O ? et du Quand ? C'est--dire : La vision utilisateurs (soit les MOT et MLD). Types Of Ethics? Elle se prsente sous la forme d'un descriptif prcis portant sur les donnes en amont et en aval de chaque opration, et sur le mode de traitement de chacune de ces oprations (le principe tant de prsenter le comment informatique comme une bote noire (qui doit le rester le plus longtemps possible) : Seuls l'amont et l'aval sont censs tre identifis ce stade. L'tude technique : Les donnes sont rajustes et stabilises, l'essentiel des traitements (les algorithmes fondamentaux) est dcrit. C'est seulement ce stade qu'est cense commencer la ralisation (qui se clturera sur la recette c'est--dire sa validation technique). Summary? Dans les faits, des pans de ralisation sont souvent entams en chevauchement avec les tapes pralables. Rape: Valid Law Essay? FIXATION DE JALONS DE VALIDATION (Cycle de dcision) : La mthode souligne l'importance d'un chancier de rencontres entre les responsables des diffrents ples de l'entreprise, bien sr, mais aussi avec les utilisateurs, afin de faire prendre conscience de la charge de travail, et parfois des difficults relationnelles, que supposent une collaboration, une comprhension et une implication personnelle dans un processus de dcisions sur des questions pluridisciplinaires.

DISSOCIATION DES DONNEES ET DES TRAITEMENTS (Cycles d'abstraction) et tude de leurs interactions. C'est ce qui fera l'objet des dveloppements suivants. Il s'agit d'un droulement donnes / traitements, selon trois niveaux correspondant trois groupes de questions : Le niveau conceptuel (le Quoi ?), aboutissant aux M.C.D. Of Waiting? (Modle conceptuel des donnes) et M.C.T. Transformation Essay? (Modle conceptuel des traitements). Summary For Godot? A ce stade, donnes et traitements sont tudis de manire parallle, dissocie (en principe par des quipes diffrentes). le niveau logique (pour les donnes) et le niveau organisationnel (pour les traitements) (le Qui?, le Quand ?, le O ?) correspondants aux M.O.T (modle organisationnel des traitements) et M.L.D. Statutory? (Modle logique des donnes). Summary? En fait, l'quipe qui a travaill sur le M.C.T. Types Of Ethics? passe un degr de dtails beaucoup plus fouill des traitements (le M.O.T.), donnant, son tour, une vision en puzzle de l'organisation des donnes. For Godot? Cette vision est alors confronte au schma global qu'est le M.C.D. Statutory Rape:? et de ce rapprochement (parfois houleux), rsulte une version corrige de l'organisation des donnes, permettant de la finaliser sous la forme du M.L.D.

Enfin, le niveau physique (pour les donnes) aboutissant la cration des tables, et le niveau oprationnel (pour les traitements) enclenchant analyse dtaille de chaque traitement, et dveloppements. Summary? Ce niveau, dpendant troitement de chaque contexte concret, ne fait en principe pas l'objet d'expos dans les ouvrages consacrs Merise. Il est important de constater que tout a t organis autour de l'ide d'aborder en premier lieu les points qui, une fois finaliss, seront en principe d'une grande stabilit, et de progresser par ordre de stabilit dcroissante. En fait, l'itinraire dcrit ci-dessus correspond une construction faisant table rase de l'antrieur. Vs Negative Freedom? S'il faut reprendre un existant, la mthode prconise un itinraire visant l'aborder en sens inverse partir du niveau le plus dtaill, et en remontant, permettant de reconstituer les pseudo M.C.D. For Godot? et M.C.T. Positive Vs Negative? de cet existant, avant d'embrayer sur la dmarche classique.

L'une des difficults pdagogiques majeure poses par Merise rside dans ce qu'il est convenu d'appeler la rfrence en avant, qui consiste mentionner des concepts nouveaux (M.C.D. For Godot? etc.) qui ne seront expliqus qu'ultrieurement dans l'expos. Of Typography? En fait, l'ensemble ne prend sa cohrence qu' la fin ! En fait, les cycle de vie et de dcision avaient pour objet de souligner l'importance : du caractre ncessairement pluridisciplinaire des quipes en charge de la dmarche (pour tre concret, informaticiens et non-informaticiens, poids gal) d'une formalisation crite soigneuse (et lisible !) des travaux relatifs au cycle d'abstraction . Summary? . Vs Negative Freedom? afin que chacun s'implique, prenne ses responsabilits , par crit galement, lors des tapes de rdaction et de validation. Il peut tre surprenant de qualifier de cycles une progression symbolise par des axes. For Godot? L'ide tait en fait prmonitoire : L'exprience a prouv que, comme dans tout systme, des phnomnes de rtroaction (en clair, la douloureuse prise de conscience d'erreurs rvles par les tapes ultrieures) amenaient dcrire cet enchanement plus comme des successions de spirales que comme des itinraires rectilignes. Par ailleurs, l'ide d'une approche donnes / traitements d'abord dissocie puis confronte constitue un des intrts majeurs de cette mthode.

M.C.D. Positive Vs Negative? (Modle conceptuel des donnes) : Reprsentation statique , sous forme schmatique, de la situation respective des donnes d'un domaine de gestion. Summary For Godot? Ce schma est conu pour tre trs stable dans le temps. L'identification des donnes est parfois loin d'tre vidente : Que faut-il choisir : Adresse ou Numro, nom de rue etc. Positive Vs Negative? ? En fait l'usage ultrieur peut guider : Il est certain que si des traitements de slection, de tri et autres, par rues sont prvus, il est plus rationnel d'isoler d'emble les nom de rue : C'est l, typiquement, un des intrts de la confrontation ultrieure qui est cense avoir lieu la fin du M.O.T, et qui aboutira au M.L.D. Def. Of Waiting? 1 : Collection de proprits, dont on positive vs negative peut identifier sans ambiguit chaque occurrence, grce une proprit particulire : l''identifiant' : A chaque valeur de cet identifiant correspond une seule occurrence.

Def. Summary For Godot? 2 : Pour chaque occurrence, il faut que toutes les proprits prennent une valeur et une seule . Pour parler franc, la dfinition N1 (officielle) peut paratre vaseuse : C'est le genre d'assertion qu'on ne comprend que lorsqu'on a tout compris, ce qui est d'un intrt pdagogique limit ! Au risque de faire frmir les auteurs de la mthode, il faut reconnaitre que les entits sont, en quelque sorte, le premier jet des futures tables-piliers de la base, bauche qui sera ajuste et remanie, parfois considrablement, au moment du M.L.D. Association : (N.B. Transformation Of European Cities Essay? : Dans les anciens ouvrages, c'est le terme de relation qui est employ) Def. Of Waiting? 1 : Objet permettant d'associer deux ou plusieurs entits, et dont chaque occurrence est identifie par la concatnation des identifiants des entits concernes. L'association n'a donc pas d'existence propre : Elle n'existe qu'en fonction des entits qu'elle relie.

Def. Statutory Not A? 2 : Comme pour l'entit, chaque valeur de cet identifiant concatn, correspond une occurrence et une seule, de l'association. Def. Of Waiting? 3 : Chaque occurrence de l'association relie une et une seule occurrence de chaque entit partipant cette association. le fait de symboliser l'association par un verbe (et non par un substantif) correspond une analogie avec la grammaire : L'association joue, en fait, le rle de rotule. Positive Freedom? L'image sera plus claire lors de l'expos du M.L.D. Ci-dessus, une reprsentation, simplifie l'extrme, d'une centrale d'achat de libraires.

Par ailleurs, une association peut tre porteuse de proprits. Il s'agit d'une tape essentielle de la dmarche. Summary? Des rponses qui y seront apportes dpendront le nombre des tables de la base, l'tendue des fonctionnalits possibles, et certaines contraintes concernant des traitements de premire importance pour l'intgrit de la base. C'est le nombre d'occurrences, minimal et maximal, d'une association par rapport chaque occurrence d'une entit donne. History Of Typography? D'une entit donne vers une association donne : la cardinalit minimale peut tre 0 ou 1. La cardinalit maximale peut tre 1 ou n. Une cardinalit minimale 0 signifie qu'on autorise le cas d'occurrences de l'entit considre qui ne soient pas relie l'association. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? Par consquent, une cardinalit minimale 1 exprimera l'obligation de relier toutes les occurrences de l'entit l'association (ce qui se matrialisera ultrieurement par une contrainte traitement).

Une cardinalit maximale n signifie qu'on autorise le cas d'occurrences de l'entit considre qui soient ventuellement relies, chacune, plusieurs occurrences de l'association. Types Of Ethics? Par consquent, une cardinalit maximale 1 exprimera l'interdiction du pluriel. Immeuble / Local : les deux cardinalits minimales 1 signifient que l'on opte pour une cration simultane d'un immeuble et d'au moins un de ses locaux constitutifs. Summary Of Waiting? Les cardinalits maximales expriment le fait qu'un local ne peut appartenir qu' un immeuble (relation d'appartenance souvent reprsente par un cercle ). Ouvrage / Type : Les minimales expriment le fait que l'on pourra crer des types ne comportant pas encore d'ouvrages rattachs, mais qu'en revanche, lors de la cration d'un ouvrage, la relation avec un type sera obligatoire. History Of Typography? La cardinalit maximale 1 de ouvrage vers type signifie qu'on s'interdit de rattacher un mme ouvrage plusieurs type (et que dans un tel cas, il faudra crer des types mixtes, historico-policier par exemple). Ouvrage / Auteur : Les minimales 0 expriment, d'une part, que l'on prvoit les ouvrages anonymes, et de l'autre que l'on admet la cration d'auteurs avant tout enregistrement de ses oeuvres. Il ne s'agit pas de dterminer les cardinalits dans l'absolu, d'une manire universelle, mais de fixer les bornes du type de gestion que l'on veut pouvoir prendre en charge dans la base de donnes qui est en construction, reflet d'un contexte prcis , soit actuel soit futur. De l'imagination et du savoir-faire que l'on aura dpendra l' adaptabilit de la base. Summary Of Waiting? On pourrait tre tent de prvoir des pluriels partout, afin d'ouvrir au maximum le champ des possibilits.

Mais, en contrepartie, la gestion des pluriels alourdit la base et les traitements. Electric Blanket? L'art du concepteur consiste ici trouver le meilleur compromis entre la restriction des possibilits et la complexit de gestion de la base. Soit, de manire plus dtaille : Cardinalit minimale : 1 Exprime l'obligation de crer simultanment les deux (ou plus) occurrences des entits et l'association (ex. Summary Of Waiting? : Une facture comporte un entte (comportant les coordonnes du client, la date etc.) et la ou les lignes de facture. History Of Typography? L'ensemble reprsent par cette facture sera cr au cours d'une mme opration, avec toutes prcautions pour viter les enregistrements orphelins). 0 peut exprimer des situation trs diverses : Soit l'absence dfinitive de relation (ex. For Godot? : Un ouvrage anonyme) Soit l'absence temporaire de relation : (ex. Not A? : Un diteur veut pouvoir crer dans sa base un auteur, pour disposer de ses coordonnes, alors qu'il n'a pas encore accept de manuscrit) Soit des situation d'alternative (ou exclusif) Ces exemples soulignent l'importance d'un commentaire joint.

La dtermination des cardinalits minimales donne souvent lieu des discussions byzantines. Summary For Godot? Rappelons que ce point ne joue pas de rle au niveau du nombre des tables ou de leur contenu, mais au niveau des contrles, lors de l'laboration des traitements, et que ces questions remonteront la surface, ncessairement, au moment de la confrontation et de la mise au point du M.L.D. Of Typography? Mais cet exercice a au moins le mrite de discuter, le plus tt possible, de points qui se rvleront ultrieurement importants. Il est surprenant de constater que le rle des cardinalits minimales est pass sous silence dans la plupart des tudes sur Merise. 1 : Si la cardinalit maximale de l'autre entit, pour la mme association est n, signifie que les deux entits se trouvent dans une situation feuille/noeud (pour reprendre le vocabulaire des arbres de donnes), dite aussi hirarchique , ou encore d'appartenance (d'o l'usage de certains auteurs de reprsenter ce type d'association non par un ovale avec la mention d'un verbe, mais par un cercle contenant le signe appartient ce qui facilite une lecture rapide du M.C.D.).

Si la cardinalit maximale de l'autre entit, pour la mme association est 1, signifie, en principe, que la premire entit regroupe des proprits qui, dans certains cas, ne sont pas signifiantes pour toutes les occurrences de la deuxime entit (ce qui suppose donc que la cardinalit minimale de la deuxime entit est 0) n : Si la cardinalit maximale de l'autre entit, pour la mme association est n, signifie que les deux entits se trouvent dans une situation de rseau. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? Sinon, on history of typography se retrouve dans la situation 1 / n mentionne ci-dessus. La dimension d'une association correspond au nombre des entits relies. Summary For Godot? Certains auteurs utilisent le terme de niveau. Haig? Le cas des associations de dimension 3 : Le cas des associations de dimension 1 (dites rflexives) : 1) Catalogue des donnes. 2) Epuration (polysmes et synonymes) 3) Dtermination des entits.

4) Dtermination et affectation des proprits. 5) Recensement des associations (avec, ventuellement, les proprits non encore affectes) 6) Dtermination des cardinalits. Sur le plan pratique, l'tablissement du M.C.D. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? lui-mme est une opration relativement rapide. Haig? Ce qui est long est la collecte des informations. Des travaux trs antrieurs aux diffrentes mthodologies (E.

Codd 1969) ont permis d'laborer des rgles permettant de rationaliser les bases. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? Elles peuvent reprsenter une aide prcieuse au stade de la dtermination des entits et des associations. History? Elles peuvent paratre parfois trs rigoureuses, mais il faut garder l'esprit qu'il s'agit d'un premier jet, qui peut tre revu ultrieurement pour des raisons d'opportunit, mais en connaissance de cause. 1re Forme Normale : Elle est susceptible de concerner toute entit et toute association. Une entit ou une association est dite en premire Forme Normale si toutes ses proprits sont : Elmentaires (non subdivisables, au vu du contexte en question). Ex. Summary? adresse ou Nom de voie, code postal etc. Ex. Electric Blanket Tesco? dans une entit Salari, il ne faut pas prvoir des proprits enfant N1, enfant N2 etc. Summary For Godot? Ds qu'une information est plurielle, elle doit tre expulse et constituer une entit part (ici une table enfant), relie par une association. Cette rgle vaut galement pour les informations dductibles les unes des autres. Sir Douglas? (Ex. Of Waiting For Godot? le montant TTC, alors que le montant HT est dj prsent et que le taux de TVA est accessible) Significative pour toutes les occurrences Ex. Rape: Not A Valid Law Essay? dans une entit Salari, voiture de fonction (oui/non) est significatif pour toutes les occurrences.

Mais pas type de la voiture de fonction. 2me Forme Normale : Elle ne concerne que les objets ayant un identifiant concatn (c'est--dire : les associations). Une association est dite en 2me Forme Normale si : Elle est en 1ere Forme Normale. Toutes ses proprits sont en dpendances fonctionnelle avec tout l'identifiant de cette association. Ex. Of Waiting For Godot? d'une association Fournisseur / Produit : identifiant : N Fournisseur / N Produit proprits : Quantit, Nom du fournisseur. Nom du fournisseur est en dpendance fonctionnelle avec la premire moiti de l'identifiant. Vs Negative Freedom? Elle doit donc tre supprime, et figurer dans une entit Fournisseur. 3me Forme Normale : Elle est susceptible de concerner toute entit et toute association. Une association est dite en 3me Forme Normale si : Elle est en 2me Forme Normale Il n'exite pas de dpendance fonctionnelle entre les proprits non-identifiantes. For Godot? (une proprit ne doit dpendre que de l'identifiant, qu'il soit concatn ou non).

Ex. Types Of Ethics? : Une entit vhicule des salaris : Identifiant : N de salari. Proprits : Type de vhicule, puissance du vhicule. Or puissance du vhicule est en dpendance fonctionnelle avec type du vhicule. For Godot? Elle doit donc migrer vers une entit part. M.C.T. Statutory Rape: Law Essay? (Modle conceptuel des traitements) : Reprsentation, sous forme schmatique, de phnomnes de ractions du type : Evnement dclenchant - Transformation du systme d'information - Rsultat. . Summary For Godot? et ceci indpendamment de toute proccupation d'organisation interne. Il est donc important de percevoir que, lors de cette tape de l'approche top / down, le monde extrieur est imprativement impliqu au niveau de chaque opration : Soit au niveau des vnements dclenchants soit au niveau des rsultats. Haig? . Of Waiting? Alors que le fonctionnement interne de l'entreprise n'est pas pris en compte (il le sera l'tape suivante : Le M.O.T.). Il s'agit donc d'une approche dynamique (contrairement au M.C.D.) : Elle exprime un suivi de transformations. History Of Typography? Le facteur chronologique joue un rle essentiel.

Mais, comme pour le M.C.D., l'un des objectifs est : Un haut degr d' invariance . Rappel : Il ne s'agit que de poser la question Quoi ?, et non le Qui ?, le O ?, le Quand , (et encore moins le Comment ?), parce que ces facteurs introduiront des fluctuations que l'on veut systmatiquement viter ce niveau. Autant le M.C.D. Summary Of Waiting? visait l'exhautivit, autant le M.C.T. Statutory? impose que l'on ignore dlibrment le niveau des dtails (qui sera tudi l'tape suivante). Collection de faits, suceptibles de dclencher une 'opration' dans les conditions prcises par la 'synchronisation'. L'intervention du temps (date / heure) est considre comme un vnement extrieur. Condition boolenne traduisant les rgles d'activation d'une opration. Ensemble d'actions dont l'enchanement ininterruptible n'est conditionn par l'attente d'aucun vnement autre que le dclencheur initial.

Condition traduisant les rgles de gestion, laquelle est soumise l'mission des rsultats d'une opration. Collection de faits, produits par l'opration, dans les conditions prvues par la (ou les) rgles d'mission. 1) Identification des acteurs (Rappel : il s'agit des acteurs extrieurs l'entreprise. 2) Identification et classement chronologique des flux. 3) Construction du M.C.T.

4) Description dtaille des rgles de gestion. M.O.T. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? (Modle organisationnel des traitements) : Reprsentation des oprations du M.C.T. Statutory Rape:? sous une forme dtaille, puisque l' organisation interne de l'entrepirse est ici prise en compte. Chaque opration du M.C.T. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? se trouve donc subdivise ici en procdures fonctionnelles (P.F.) qui sont, elles aussi, initerruptibles. Remarque : Certains auteurs remplacent procdures fonctionnelles par le terme de phase. Lors de l'laboration du M.O.T., une variation au niveau du Qui ?, du Quand ? et du O ? constituera une interruption. Le M.O.T. Transformation Of European Cities Essay? cerne l'activit de chaque poste de travail (informatique ou non), et de chaque service, en tenant compte du planning, du type de ressources (manuel, automatis), du type de support (document crit, magntique etc.) Cette reprsentation est donc dtaille et trs concrte , et les symboles graphiques utiliss peuvent tre influencs par le contexte. For Godot? A cel prs, elle suit globalement le formalisme vu au niveau du M.C.T. Types Of Ethics? Les fiches descriptives qui doivent accompagner chaque P.F. Of Waiting? dtaillent les rgles de synchronisation et d'mission. Not A Valid Law Essay? Elles constituent donc une premire bauche des algorithmes essentiels pour les P.F. For Godot? appeles tre informatises.

La P.F.1 reprsente une tape manuelle (non informatise). Non reprsente ici : La PF correspondant la cration informatique du support de cours. Les cardinalits expriment que le cours peut tre cr sur informatique alors que le support est encore en cours de rdaction. Blanket Tesco? Ce dernier n'est exig que lors de la cration informatique de la session. Les entits dates et les association de dimension 3 permettent de grer les salles par tranche horaire (une simple association de niveau 2 aurait contraint ne grer qu'une salle pour une session donne). Ces vues externes constituent les pices d'un puzzle qui sera confront avec le M.C.D. Of Waiting For Godot? et permettra de le corriger et de le complter. Vs Negative Freedom? Rappelons que cette tape de confrontation est essentielle . Cette tape de M.O.T. Of Waiting For Godot? peut tre grandement aid par un graphe de circulation de l'information. C'est grce toutes les oprations prcdentes que l'ensemble des tables de la base de donne vont pouvoir tre structures de manire simple et trs rapide : Le M.C.D. Cities Essay? ayant t corrig la fin de l'tape du M.O.T., ce sont les cardinalits maximales qui vont jouer le rle essentiel.

Les entits deviennent des tables (sauf des cas particuliers comme les dates) Remarque : Une telle association n'a pas lieu d'tre porteuse de proprit, par conformit avec la 2me Forme Normale. L'exemple d'un organisme de formations : passage du M.C.D. For Godot? au M.L.D. La mise au point des tables n'est pas termine : Pour des raisons d'opportunit, certaines rgles pourront tre assouplies ce stade (mais en connaissance de cause). Of Typography? Ainsi : Admettre, dans une table, des proprits qui ne sont pas significatives pour toutes les occurrences,

Ainsi : pour les donnes trs stables : Informations souvent lues, mais rarement modifies (ex. Summary Of Waiting? : Une date de naissance). Ce travail une fois effectu, la phase de dveloppement peut commencer . Les diffrents sujets traits dans ce site se recoupant, les bibliographies ont t regroupes : Bibliographie.

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of summary of waiting, posts on lateral partner moves from Statutory, Lateral Links team of expert contributors. Of Waiting For Godot! Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Links New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and blanket Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of for godot, Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and types of ethics a B.A. in government and of waiting romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College.

Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the of typography, New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to of waiting for godot assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on blanket tesco, the most common problems I see and of waiting questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Electric Blanket! Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office.

You need to make the summary of waiting for godot, most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Statutory Valid Law Essay! Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and summary of waiting make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to positive vs negative jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. Its just one page. 3. Of Waiting! Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of electric blanket, your mind that you are applying for a legal job.

Do not view updating your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to of waiting the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from Transformation of European Essay, college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. Of Waiting For Godot! 5. History! When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of of waiting for godot, merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of electric, $300 million in of waiting for godot, floating rate notes by a large U.S. Statutory Not A Valid Law Essay! manufacturing company. Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to for godot include a few bullets points showing this experience in Transformation of European Cities, your actual resume as well.

And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Summary Of Waiting For Godot! Dont use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you worked on a project or that you successfully implemented a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the electric tesco, proper dates. Change the for godot, verbs (represent, draft, negotiate) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to Transformation of European Cities Essay the past tense (represented, drafted, negotiated). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of summary, today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and sir douglas not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies).

Maybe you and for godot one of the Statutory Valid, interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this fluff gives interviewers some material for summary of waiting, a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and positive not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: Can you talk intelligently about it if asked? If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in of waiting, your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Haig! Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to of waiting for godot a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, Id go with work experience first.

9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in Transformation of European Cities Essay, front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and of waiting for godot white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If youve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, its the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully.

Then proofread it again. Types Of Ethics! Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. Summary Of Waiting For Godot! And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams Dont hire me! like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. Of European Cities! 10?. For Godot! Heres a freebie. Its not the most important tip unless well if it is, you know who you are.

You know that photo of you in tesco, the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on summary of waiting, your resume? Well guess what When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen.

If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where youre interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on Valid Law Essay, the right-hand sidebar. Im not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for for godot, the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. Electric! But there are wrong ways. Look at models but dont just copy someone elses. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in summary of waiting for godot, the door in the next step of freedom, your career or not. Its worth spending a few extra hours getting it right.

Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. Of Waiting For Godot! With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by former practicing attorneys from Transformation Cities, top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of summary for godot, practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out more about us. Sign up for our newsletter.

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essays on apollo 13 “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the god Apollo, representing the Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to of waiting, be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and Arthur C. Clarkes fictitious works. Lovell liked the sound and types of ethics felt it was going to follow the of waiting dictionarys description of a long and eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the water carrier, at times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of life down from the types of ethics heavens.

Before the mission, the summary crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. After the mission they were glad it did! Settling into the Command Module, the astronauts of sir douglas haig Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in space, including the first trip to the Moon in Apollo 8. He had more time in space than any other human at the time. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space. Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an summary of waiting, air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, John L. Of Typography? Swigert, Jr., and summary of waiting Fred W. Haise, Jr.

Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the history mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke. Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the launch. Of Waiting For Godot? As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the of typography doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at the moment Lovell and Haise were on the Moons surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Because of the teamwork required by the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and summary for godot Haise. The training had to types of ethics, be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in only two days. Of Waiting? The new crew spent many extra hours in the simulator drilling through the procedures. In one of the many strange twists of fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: Swigert practically wrote the book on spacecraft malfunctions. Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella.

The original crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Sir Douglas Haig? Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the of waiting for godot Apollo Image Gallery. Apollo 13 was going to be the first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. Blanket? The target was the Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the Apollo 12 landing site. Frau Mauro was going to summary of waiting for godot, be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to sir douglas, be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of 12 knots from the east south east. Altocumulus clouds with a base height of of waiting 19,000 feet covered about freedom, 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above.

The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. as received in Australia by shortwave from of waiting The Voice of America. Blanket? Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for summary of waiting for godot, 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on electric, Sunday 12 April). There was trouble right away.

Lovell: At five and summary of waiting a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and positive freedom I felt a little vibration. Then the centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? This caused the remaining four engines to positive vs negative, burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of summary of waiting for godot fuel. Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by types of ethics, 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Of Waiting? Translunar injection was at sir douglas, 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at summary of waiting, 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the positive freedom action. The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at summary of waiting, 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the previous missions the SIVB was sent off into sir douglas, solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the summary for godot SIVB was targeted to of typography, impact the Moon so the vibrations could be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life. The peace of Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston.

In the rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: How do I apply for an extension? he asked, Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. Im really serious. Youre breaking up the room down here, replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on filing, I assume this applies to you. Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, The spacecraft is in real good shape as far as we are concerned. We are bored to tears down here. This boredom was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the evening shift for Monday April 13 came in for a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: Pioneer, the of waiting half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the Saturn IVB. Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to blanket, ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the of waiting Prime site and hear the blanket spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring. It wasnt long before this mood was to change, to change dramatically.

Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay. White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1227 AEST, the summary of waiting for godot astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in tesco the CM played music from for godot 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from Valid a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon.

Marilyn Lovell and summary Mary Haise had to go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the sir douglas few viewers of the broadcast on summary for godot, a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to electric blanket tesco, the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the explosion. GET: on screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the electric blanket tesco TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: This is the of waiting for godot crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and were just about ready to blanket, close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight. Lovell: On the of waiting for godot tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy. Of European Cities? A pleasant evening indeed!

Nine minutes later the roof fell in. As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in the Service Module. Back at Houston the same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on the contents of the tanks he wasnt too concerned to summary of waiting, see the history of typography light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into for godot, layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to types of ethics, ask the summary astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by electric motors. Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the oxygen tanks too. Lousma: Thirteen, weve got one more item for you when you get the chance. Wed like you to stir up your cryo tanks. Swigert answered Okay, stand by and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to electric blanket tesco, the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before. A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident.

It found the following events led to this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on summary of waiting for godot, reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to improve the electric electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps. When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the tanks was dropped about for godot, 5 centimetres. Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of events leading to the explosion in space. In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the types of ethics tank to fill and empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in space to pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in the top of the of waiting oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on vs negative, March 16, a test run to check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the test.

Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to summary of waiting for godot, remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out sir douglas haig again, leaving up to 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the of waiting engineering team thought the quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in the tank. After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. They also advised Mattingly and Transformation Cities Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the flight. Lovell queried the implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment.

Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the summary thermostat of the change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the contacts together. With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C. As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the wires in the motors driving the two fans inside the tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the Statutory Valid first clue of summary of waiting for godot a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it. But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the positive freedom relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the world was to be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the oxygen tanks.

When Swigert switched the of waiting for godot fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the positive vs negative bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for of waiting for godot, the resulting pressure to blow the tank apart . shock the feed valves to two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the Statutory Valid Law Essay external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of space; no sensors to detect explosions. As the summary of waiting Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the of typography spacecraft.

At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to of waiting, reacquire the signal but were only able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in history lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” Fred was still in summary the Lunar Module. Electric Tesco? Jack was back in the Command Module in the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred coming down. Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion.

He jumped when the summary master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigerts voice from the Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. since he didnt tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened. It wasnt me! Haise threw back at Lovells inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for his couch in the Command Module. Swigert tried to slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something. The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments. History Of Typography? Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldnt lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the summary for godot hatch aside. All three astronauts pulse rates shot up to blanket tesco, over 130. It is interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Lunar Module, when the hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it easy as pie.

Thats the summary of waiting for godot kind of flight it was. It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. I proceeded to types of ethics, look at Jim and about the same time I guess about two seconds had elapsed when I had a master alarm and summary for godot a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to the right hand side of the types of ethics spacecraft to of waiting, look at electric, the voltage He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the power to drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to be on for godot, its way out too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3. With only blanket, fuel cell #2 left to drive the A Bus, the astronauts realised from the of waiting mission rules that landing on Cities, the moon was now impossible. At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, Okay, Houston, weve had a problem here. Capcom Jack Lousma, This is summary of waiting for godot Houston say again, please. Houston weve had a problem. Weve had a Main B Bus undervolt, Lovell explained. Roger.

Main B undervolt. Okay, stand by, Thirteen, were looking at it. Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. In the Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . Rape: Valid Law Essay? At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center. They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the Moon the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the summary of waiting screen and over the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the tesco flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. They left the summary of waiting for godot rooftop quite oblivious to electric tesco, what they had witnessed the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the Mission Control Center none of the Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out summary for godot that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing.

EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Rape: Valid Law Essay Command and Service Modules electrical and of waiting for godot environmental systems, was now squarely in tesco the hot seat: Our data suddenly went ratty, some of summary for godot it went static. I heard the Statutory Rape: Not a Valid announcements from the summary of waiting spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense. Tesco? I called Kranz, We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check, which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that. Rog. Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of summary static as lock is lost on history of typography, the High Gain Antenna. We hear the summary for godot team beginning to troubleshoot the problem.

This recording is history of typography part of longer audio on for godot, a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books. This audio clip is also available on haig, Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right. From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the explosion. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar.

Liebergot never saw the summary of waiting pressure spike in of typography the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: You look away, you blink, and its gone. Thats exactly what happened. We were doing the cryo stir and I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. Types Of Ethics? When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to for godot, figure out what was going on as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that.

Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank. Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of history of typography limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed. No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for this crisis. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didnt suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to isolate it. Also, he was still trying to summary of waiting for godot, figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty.

Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and the spacecraft power for positive, the mission had gone in two minutes just vanished. They hadnt even reached the summary of waiting for godot moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on vs negative freedom, backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of all the power systems into the simulations. As one of the Flight Controllers said later, This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic. I had all the feelings that went with not having the answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. Of Waiting? We were never trained for a cascading series of types of ethics problems leading to a catastrophe. Thats not training.

It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail. A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the summary of waiting for godot spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to of European, the side panel hitting the big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the summary of waiting erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in holding onto sir douglas the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission. Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to summary, drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13? Lovell couldnt contain his anxiety any longer. Thats affirmative, replied Lousma, We are reading you.

Were trying to come up with some good ideas here for positive vs negative freedom, you. He looked appealingly at Kranz: What can I tell them? Kranz did not have an answer. Of Waiting For Godot? Nobody had an haig, answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Lovell couldnt understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the summary of waiting heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the flight controllers at types of ethics, the time the explosion had knocked some of the thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. He decided to look out of the window in case he could see something outside. As he swung himself onto the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach the sun was shining on a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the side of the Service Module.

Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, I happened to look out of the left hand window, and saw the summary of waiting for godot final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. We are venting something out into the . into space, I reported to types of ethics, Houston. Roger, we copy you are venting, acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of of waiting for godot gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and electric put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: I ignored that, I couldnt deal with that. Of Waiting? I needed to go and find what I could do about it. Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and positive freedom dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen they werent going to have enough to bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it? Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have?

He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to summary of waiting for godot, their survival, and their lives would depend on haig, maintaining communication with Houston, and for that they needed power. There were only 15 minutes of summary for godot battery power left in the Command Module, and that was needed for reentry into the Earths atmosphere. The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: The knot in my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on haig, the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the of waiting film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind. He looked across to Law Essay, Haise, the LM expert and pilot, Were going to have to use Aquarius to get home. Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to summary of waiting for godot, 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes. Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only three hours of life left. Looking into electric blanket tesco, the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach.

He grabbed the security handles on his console to steady himself down. Was he going to summary, be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didnt have the answers. It seemed we were on the point of history losing everybody and everything. What had to be done before the Command Module completely died? Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and a Lunar Module only of waiting, designed to go down to of typography, the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and of waiting manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to be leading to more problems.

except the sir douglas Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. It wasnt long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to be involved. During the summary of waiting Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to Statutory Rape: Not a Valid, conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the power to the relays that controlled the transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries so they could not turn the summary power on in the vs negative freedom Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage. That was the first big problem to be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on summary of waiting for godot, 25 April 1969, during an types of ethics, Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the summary fuel cells in almost the types of ethics same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead. Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about summary, their simulation failure, and decided to look into the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to positive freedom, pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the for godot Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the of typography power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into summary for godot, the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays.

These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off. Transformation Of European Cities? They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out Youd better come back here, I think somethings going on. I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and for godot one of the plans in cases like this was to close all the telephone lines in types of ethics and out of the Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and told her not to summary of waiting for godot, expect me home that night turn on the TV to find out why and hung up. At the of typography Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the for godot telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: We were able to read all bits up to of typography, signal loss by recording the of waiting data at Rape:, a high speed of 60 inches per summary of waiting for godot, second and playing it back at 3 inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto electric tesco the control room floor and counted the summary for godot frames of data by eye to find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.

The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to keep the oxygen levels steady. The EECOM from Milt Windlers Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. Of European Cities? It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. Arnie said Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I dont know. So I said to summary of waiting for godot, Arnie, Go and read me some parameters off displays such and types of ethics such, then go to displays such and such and read those out to me. He did all that and I said Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys theyve got a real problem and Ill be right there. By the time I came in, I got in on the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and summary of waiting started convincing the guys that they ought to Statutory Not a Valid, power down the Command Module and save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and I knew these were the for godot same batteries that were going to bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to vs negative, be powered down in space and we didnt have any procedures to power it up from scratch.

Normally it was powered up over a period of summary days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power. Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the Command Modules reentry batteries left and they were needed for reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and electric wed better think about getting into summary, the LM. Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to think of getting the positive vs negative freedom spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and summary of waiting his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the LM lifeboat would have to Not a Valid Law Essay, be cast off, and summary for godot doubt about the integrity of the sir douglas Service Module that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the Service Module? Was the engine damaged? Even if it wasnt, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves.

The alternative was to carry on and sling around the Moon. This was going to of waiting, take up to four days could they keep the Transformation Essay astronauts alive for such a long period? That was up to the LM systems controllers. For Godot? The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. Types Of Ethics? He wanted to summary, help his mates if he could. Kranz said this was his toughest call on sir douglas, Apollo 13. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? My team was pretty much split down the middle. Many of my systems controllers wanted to Statutory, get home in the fastest fashion possible. By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the room, Okay all flight controllers cut the chatter.

I want every member of the White team to settle down and get back on of waiting, the voice loops the rest of you shut up. Still damp from being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and vs negative joined the for godot intercom conversation at his Directors console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to take over the next shift. Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the sir douglas haig Flight Directors on summary of waiting, the best course of action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, Our only history of typography, real option is to go around the Moon. Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the glass window of the VIP viwewing room. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, When do you want to do the burn? The decision was made, and of waiting for godot the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to work out a burn procedure for types of ethics, a trajectory to sling around the Moon and return home.

So 53 minutes after the explosion, an emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and of waiting for godot Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. I was already in a back room of the history Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and of waiting for godot some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still werent sure how serious the history of typography problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the oxygen in one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems.

We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at summary of waiting for godot, a time, to try to isolate a leak within the Cities fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you cant get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort. We had a number of situations to deal with. We were on summary of waiting, a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to Transformation Cities, any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of of waiting propulsion to turn around and Transformation come back without looping around the Moon. That was considered for a while, but the only way we knew how to of waiting for godot, do that was to dump the history descent stage of the Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the two problems with that were we couldnt power the Service Module up any more, we were only down to batteries, so we couldnt sustain a power load to summary for godot, run the Service Propulsion engine, and we didnt want to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and history so on were stored.

Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldnt work by itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in summary free space. We realised we had to of European Cities, get an alignment from the of waiting for godot Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and types of ethics transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and checked by the people on the ground. This of course happened some time after we got the of waiting Lunar Module powered up. We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out what we didnt have to Statutory, bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. We knew we couldnt stay powered up at of waiting for godot, these levels so we had to figure out a way to cut the power down. Of European Cities Essay? We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board. We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control.

Instead of summary a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and history cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the crew didnt have to worry about it. Once we got in that position we said were on this non-free return, why dont we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didnt need and for godot we began to types of ethics, lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at of waiting, seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the Moon.

We settled on a manoeuvre that wasnt quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. We had also figured out Statutory Valid Law Essay how to husband the consumables. By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the for godot inertial guidance platform had been transferred to types of ethics, the Lunar Module, and we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at of waiting, the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and types of ethics we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at of waiting for godot, the end. Glynn Lunney (left) and history of typography Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident. Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM.

Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for for godot, an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to sir douglas haig, study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to concentrate on the engineering and procedures to for godot, get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. The key thing here was I didnt form the Tiger Team the sir douglas haig Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that teams responsibility to for godot, establish the positive game plan, the recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out summary of waiting for godot how to freedom, navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to summary of waiting for godot, get the haig crew back home. We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the of waiting for godot three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the Essay checklist, John Aaron with the summary power management, and Bill Peters who looked at history of typography, the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat. There were no official procedures to of waiting for godot, refer to even the emergency procedures didnt cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in lieu of the Command Module.

At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to electric blanket, climb into the Lunar Module, Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for summary of waiting, the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it, Haise explained. Swigert was left to wind down the sir douglas Command Module. The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Capcom Jack Lousma told the astronauts, Thirteen, Houston. For Godot? Wed like you to start making your way over to the LM now Swigert replied: Fred and Jim are in tesco the LM. Lovell had joined Haise in summary of waiting for godot the LM, who was already throwing switches to bring the Not a power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, Houston wants the LM powered up. Haise advised Houston, . and Jack, I got LM power on. GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the summary for godot navigation platform is transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasnt fast enough.

He had to turn the reentry battery in the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the history crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: Getting that transfer was the summary first big turning point. The concern is electric evident on summary of waiting for godot, the face of Statutory Rape: Valid astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the Command Module down. The power had to be turned off in summary a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for Not a Law Essay, reentry. At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and dead 333,125 empty kilometres from of waiting Earth, and types of ethics racing away from it at 3,380 kilometres per hour!

He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, Its up to you now. He suddenly felt lost. He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission. Now he could only watch the other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of time during those hectic five hours, full of rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the jolt from the security of comfort and order to the onslaught of unexpected events and fleeting images and summary of waiting for godot feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to drag himself into the Command Module to sleep soundly for Statutory Not a, the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13.

At the time of the summary of waiting for godot explosion I was operating the types of ethics ranging system, which measured the distance and for godot speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of positive vs negative freedom instructions up to the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the summary of waiting astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. Transformation Of European Cities? At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft. The first indication of the summary of waiting seriousness of the crisis to history of typography, us at Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in for godot Houston called the Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and asked, How long would it take to get Parkes up? Parkes was the of typography CSIROs radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you dont just casually ask to use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning. In Mission Control the of waiting low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern.

Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and types of ethics Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it. Parkes isnt committed to this mission, Mike Dinn informed them. Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek. Photo: Hamish Lindsay. I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to of waiting, have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. Do what you can to types of ethics, get Parkes up as soon as possible. First of all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to summary for godot, Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the sir douglas problem and was prepared to change the antenna over to support the NASA signals.

At the Deep Space Station at summary of waiting, Tidbinbilla the request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and budgets. Then I got a black phone call , Hey look, weve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is history a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it never mind about budgets and for godot money. The contractors people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the equipment was still there, it just wasnt configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the system. Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Photo from sir douglas a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. I was listening to the conversation between Houston and summary of waiting for godot James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. I realised that the only solution was to occupy the LM and Transformation of European Cities Essay use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and the fact that the summary for godot journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an history, excellent relationship, to summary of waiting, ask for vs negative freedom, the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr. E.G.

Bowen) to let him know what assistance I would need from of waiting Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to organise supplies and aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the haig Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of engineers were on hand. They dismantled and carried Rads equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the lift to get the NASA gear to summary, the focus. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to a week. Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in Not a Valid Law Essay a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? It was a hairy trip. At the same time the CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone. Vs Negative Freedom? We arrived in the dark, drove out to summary of waiting for godot, the site, by which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the types of ethics equipment.

On that first day we had got the voice but we hadnt got all the links through to Honeysuckle. I can remember holding the cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in summary for godot my hand but I couldnt do anything with it! Predictions were the of typography problem (the information where to point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on summary for godot, predictions from NASA. John Bolton and his boys had to work around them as much as they could. We didnt get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to up the bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days. I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to history, say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble. Next there was a call from the Network Manager in the United States to say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to get some kind of summary of waiting for godot broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station.

They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in electric blanket tesco the PMG (Post Master Generals Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 oclock in the morning I dragged one of of waiting for godot my friends out of bed, and Transformation of European Cities Essay he said, Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, Ill see what I can do give me a call back in an hour. When I called him back he said, Yes, Ive organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in summary for godot Perth for Carnarvon at 8 oclock this morning, as soon as the guys get to electric tesco, work. There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of lets do it and sort things out afterwards. At the of waiting same time I got cracking with the Statutory Not a Law Essay PMG. Because we already had circuits into summary of waiting for godot, Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of history bed and they found most of the link was there, and pretty soon after the for godot Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up. Trevor Gray , PMG technician: We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the equipment on because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the Law Essay equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the sick valves and change them before we could get the links going. Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in of waiting for godot Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: It was the City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in a hurry.

I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and concentrated on electric blanket, the Apollo circuits. Meanwhile out in space the for godot astronauts found that as soon as they brought the history Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the of waiting Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the electric tesco same as having two radio stations on the same spot on the dial of your radio. Which one does it try to lock onto?

Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the for godot signal from the vs negative freedom Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to of waiting, allow for of European, expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, thats not going to work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to one up-link and summary wipe out the telemetry and voice contact with the crew. I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions. So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and history voice contact with the spacecraft crew.

Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the two signals and the telemetry and voice links were restored. So the situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for us to hand this mess over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia. Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Of Waiting For Godot? Deputy Director Mike Dinn : This was where the receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the other and did!

Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. There was nothing written down in the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in pulling the frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately. I was used to history, this procedure in the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to tune the of waiting for godot frequency of one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to talk Houston out of blanket tesco this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to summary, carry out the request. The problems we knew would happen, occurred.

John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and electric blanket practice handovers and summary of waiting for godot that sort of thing. When Mike Dinn was looking for history of typography, emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the summary of waiting for godot aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to tesco, go. From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to ask the for godot astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on history, to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal. They came back in an hour and told us to go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the summary blind’ hoping the astronauts could hear, as we couldnt hear them at that moment. Haig? The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to summary for godot, the prescribed frequency, we put the second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine. In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over the System Monitor chart recorder.

Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and sir douglas Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight. People around the world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from for godot space as the worlds media wound themselves up for this journalists manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the of typography Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of moisture formed over summary for godot all the surfaces, crusting the Statutory Not a windows. Occasional flashes of sunlight through the windows pierced the of waiting darkness lit only by their torches.

Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on stars for Statutory Valid, their navigation. The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before. The LM was never designed to summary of waiting for godot, have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and haig Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to fly the vehicle all over again. Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the free-return trajectory, where the for godot spacecraft would automatically sling around the types of ethics Moon and return to Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the missions began to summary, aim at freedom, the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to summary of waiting for godot, Earth. Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres. The only haig, reliable engine available was the LMs descent motor, but that was never designed to push the for godot combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to sir douglas, admit it, the of waiting for godot computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rockets burn times. Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight.

Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the IU and LM transponders to electric tesco, the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the of waiting for godot presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the positive explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the summary of waiting for godot glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to sir douglas, see the stars to check they were pointing in of waiting for godot the right direction for vs negative freedom, the burn.

Every ruse failed. They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. Roger, Aquarius, You are go for for godot, the burn, Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, This was yet untried. I knew, of course, that if we failed to blast into Statutory Not a Law Essay, the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it. First of all Lovell had to summary of waiting, remember to unfold the Lunar Modules legs so they wouldnt get blasted by the descent rockets exhaust.

Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on of European, the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the of waiting for godot engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. Auto shutdown. Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Types Of Ethics? Was the for godot Lunar Modules motor able to do the job? Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the tracking data showed that the types of ethics burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the surface and would return to summary of waiting for godot, Earth . into the Indian Ocean. Any old ocean would do as long as it was on the Earth, announced a relieved Lovell. Haig? A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in summary the Pacific, but at least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of types of ethics Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to summary, the South Atlantic, let alone the Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: Okay, Houston, burns complete.

Now we have to talk about powering down. The next big problem were the consumables it wasnt much good the spacecraft arriving back on vs negative freedom, Earth with the astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to support three bodies jammed in it for 90 hours. There just wasnt enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth. Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and he couldnt see how it could possibly keep them going that long.

In the summary of waiting Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only sir douglas, batteries for two days of normal operation, and the water used for cooling the for godot electronic systems would run out of typography about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the first to succumb to of waiting for godot, the heat. Haise waited for sir douglas haig, Mission Controls assessment. The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to cut all consumables down to summary, a basic existence level.

We gathered up in the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the Moon and when we get back close to Earth we will power the spacecraft up and do the reentry. and blanket I said, Kranz you cant do that because you dont have the summary power and he said, Okay John Aaron, youre in haig charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron. So I said, Tell you what guys, Ive got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in an hour and Ill show you a way we might be able to for godot, do this. So they came back in about an hour, and positive freedom I had sketched out a rough profile and I told them, Okay guys, this is all the summary for godot power weve got so well have to do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. and everybody started saying Oh my God, you cant do that - weve got to have this, weve got to have that and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. Statutory? That went on until we got very close to summary of waiting, reentry, and it started taking on Statutory Not a, more and more refinement, until it finally got to of waiting for godot, the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that. It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators. Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of history of typography anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. Summary? I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated.

The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Moon and did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen. Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. Once we hit the of European Essay 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the for godot air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to Statutory Rape: Not a Valid, charge up the reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the summary for godot Command Modules inverters to charge its batteries. I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford. On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the country, from California to of European Cities, New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturers plant in Bethpage, Long Island.

On 14 April the of waiting US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to permit persons to join in prayer for the safety of the astronauts. On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at Statutory Rape: Law Essay, the time Assistant Secretary of summary of waiting State for Public Affairs, to find out the details of how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, I want to inform you the electric Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the armed forces to use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts. 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3. Summary? This is positive 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Of Waiting? Starting at 066:35GET.

Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on tesco, 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. We only had the radio for communications and for godot a little fan to circulate the history atmosphere. For most of the first two days after the explosion we split shifts . I was awake in of waiting for godot the LM alone while Jim and Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period. It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the Cities LM crew cabin out of the way, so the area was really not that confining. And it was good to have the three of us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to raise the temperature in the LM. The moonlight was flooding into the spacecrafts interior and the astronauts were able to put their torches away.

They had cut their consumption of of waiting for godot water down to 170 grams per history, day. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Modules water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to summary for godot, transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at positive vs negative, all, the Command Module having the summary for godot only water heating system. All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didnt get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms. As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the Moon the vs negative Sun set behind the rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft.

The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an summary of waiting for godot, illimitable sea of bright stars stars in every direction. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the void. The crew then became aware some of the electric stars were blotted out by two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft. Lovell, I cant for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is. Haise, Yes did you look at summary of waiting for godot, it, Jack? Swigert, Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds. They decided it was the debris from the explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the spell, Go ahead Houston. Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of types of ethics signal and everythings looking good here. Vance Brands matter-of-fact voice from the security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecrafts cabin. Roger, I take it you dont want us to summary of waiting for godot, activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal? Lovell checked. Okay, well just sit tight, then.

See you on types of ethics, the other side. Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from Aquarius, with the summary Command Module at history, right. NASA JSC scan via the of waiting for godot ALSJ. AS13-62-8909.

APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH. At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and tesco lost contact with the tracking stations on for godot, Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of types of ethics Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the humans to travel the of waiting farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over Rape: a totally black lunar surface until about for godot, five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon. Rape: Not A Valid? Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the window. While Lovell hovered at the back of the cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Modules windows, gazing in awe at summary of waiting for godot, the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and positive freedom torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, Wow, look at that! Hey, you guys come on weve got a burn to do. If we dont get this right you wont get your pictures developed! Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. Its all right for you youve been here before we havent. They still couldnt take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . AS13-62-8922. From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and summary of waiting for godot Planetary Institute.

After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for the Lunar Modules descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at blanket, 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and its rocking it a little bit. Lovell answered, Well, at least something worked on of waiting for godot, this flight. Sure glad we didnt have a LM impact too! The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at sir douglas haig, 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to summary of waiting for godot, 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: The Apollo 12 Lunar Modules signal only lasted for about 55 minutes.

This signal (from the positive vs negative freedom Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to 30 times larger than the LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us. Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the Service Module to summary of waiting, be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the positive freedom closest point they would come to the Moon. It would also bring them down in summary of waiting the Pacific Ocean the tesco original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm Helen threatening the area, and they were considering an alternate landing spot. Due to the software in the LM not being able to of waiting for godot, accommodate the types of ethics attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the engine manually. Of Waiting? At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by vs negative freedom, 966 kilometres per hour: Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances, he said. As heard live via the Voice of summary of waiting America, Rhett Turner reporting.

79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. And how the time dragged! It was very quiet . Electric Tesco? very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to summary of waiting for godot, do and positive vs negative freedom youre in a tight spot thats bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation youre in and you want something to do! In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Of Waiting For Godot? Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for the launch to go ahead. Round about the time of the explosion the same computer began to types of ethics, fail again, which put the pressure on us because they needed the ability to send commands up to summary of waiting for godot, the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to troubleshoot this computer and managed to Rape:, narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis.

We replaced those, but it didnt solve the problem. I stayed on summary of waiting, site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. Electric Blanket Tesco? As the summary spacecraft rounded the moon and types of ethics was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out summary for godot a chassis from the sir douglas haig computer in the training facility in Goddard and strapped it into a first class seat on an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the summary chassis arrived from the States. The only thing left for us to do was to take the chassis out of the computer and Transformation of European we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove we put it all back in, and summary of waiting from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away. Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the Statutory Rape: Not a Valid astronauts. A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to summary, a dangerous level, and in the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head. Transformation Cities? He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to join the Command Modules square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Modules round system using only the materials available on summary of waiting for godot, board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by positive, oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcoms console.

The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about 2 or 3 millimetres of summary mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident. When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and read the instructions as the history crew began to assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Lovell: Jack and I put it together it wasnt very handsome, but it worked. Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16. Senator Anderson, It is summary interesting to be able to tell the types of ethics Senate and for godot the people of Transformation of European Essay Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to install microwave links enabling the summary of waiting 64 metre radio telescope of the sir douglas Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to assist the return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night. Teams from the Post Master Generals Department and for godot the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by of typography, personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek.

This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in the middle of the night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the spacecrafts trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today. I would like to pay special tribute to summary of waiting, the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for haig, all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to Earth. Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of summary of waiting 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earths gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in Transformation Cities the descent stage, and summary for godot I saw a new shower of snowflakes come up. Another explosion!

This time from under their feet in the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Modules descent stage. Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in Statutory Rape: the batterys lid until the pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the for godot Lunar Modules electrical engineer: After it made its pop and snowflakes as people say, we looked at the data and types of ethics it had a spike in the current data, thats all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and I turned it off. After consulting with the manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the mission. Mission Control began working on summary of waiting for godot, correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of 14 seconds of the Lunar Modules descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on 16 April. Electric Blanket Tesco? Lovell fired the summary for godot engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and Swigert called the times.

Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecrafts homeward trajectory, so told the freedom crew not to of waiting for godot, dump any waste material overboard. This meant they had to find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the flow. Tesco? Im glad we got home when we did, said Lovell, because we were just about out of ideas for summary of waiting, stowage. Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift?

Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from a non-propulsive water boiler vent in history of typography the Lunar Modules cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moons surface and back. Summary? When the error crept up to 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the Cities astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out summary for godot of the atmosphere and go off into history of typography, solar orbit: . to for godot, become a permanent monument to the space program, as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in sir douglas the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit. The flight controllers were reluctant to of waiting for godot, fire the of typography Lunar Modules descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in summary of waiting the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the Cities Essay correction burn had to happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: We dont want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. Well simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and Stop switches.

For attitude, what were going to want to do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the Earth in summary of waiting the centre of Statutory Rape: Not a Valid your window. Summary? If you hold it there throughout the burn, the attitude will be correct. Got that? Roger, I think so, Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an exercise to history of typography, see if they could steer the spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the navigation systems. Houston planned to burn the Lunar Modules descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the Earths gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigerts wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for summary of waiting for godot, 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and of typography Haise steered the spacecraft to summary for godot, keep the crosshair of the optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earths terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again.

Three and a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and electric blanket a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, Thats the end of our helium problem. It became so cold in summary for godot Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: When we turned off the blanket tesco electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in the windows didnt help much. We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didnt have lunar overshoes. It wasnt simply that the summary temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of Transformation of European Essay perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by of waiting for godot, the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”.

During the Rape: last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering. He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in summary the tunnel between the sir douglas haig two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27C Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didnt have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for for godot, over two days. We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the positive freedom batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional, Kranz admitted later, backed up by for godot, Lovell: The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of Law Essay water. Summary Of Waiting? The chances of Transformation of European Cities Essay short circuits caused us apprehension, to for godot, say the least.

But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the Not a Law Essay disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the summary atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module! At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Positive Vs Negative? Normally it would take three months to summary for godot, develop these procedures they had less than three days. Basically we planned to power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the guidance system on types of ethics, in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay.

By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in of waiting being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didnt take into history, account. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and he found things that wouldnt work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we cant add more power, we have to do some other way. And of course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, Hey Houston, were looking out the window and the Earths getting bigger and bigger wheres that check list? It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into for godot, the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to his chest: I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didnt have word processors in positive freedom those days, and I said Okay Flight - here it is, read it to of waiting, the crew.

A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to his console and positive freedom called: Houston, Aquarius. Go, Houston, replied Lovell. Okay, we are ready to read you the summary for godot first checklist instalment All right, Vance. Im going to get Jack on the line, so stand by. Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out tesco demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, Okay, Vance, Im ready to of waiting, copy, he had to hand the checklist back and sheepishly answer: Okay, Jack but we have to Cities, ask you to wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and EECOM and itll take a second or two. It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth. Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together. Of Waiting? In the time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earths atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to start using the checklist they tried to get some rest.

Lovell reported: Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is lying on the floor in a sleep restraint. They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the atmosphere Houston sent the message, You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time. Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the haig evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over the switch to summary of waiting for godot, jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to positive, be incinerated in for godot the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and types of ethics Command Module away from the summary of waiting for godot carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and he and Haise peered out of the electric blanket Lunar Modules windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module. Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into summary of waiting for godot, view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of wire, tubing and electric blanket entrails gently waving about.

Expecting only a small hole from the explosion, he said Im glad we couldnt see the Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away. Then Haise yelled I can see it out summary of waiting my window, so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to types of ethics, the window and managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for of waiting, later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the Lunar Planetary Institute in haig Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.”

As heard live via the Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Modules heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for the homecoming. He commented: Boy, you wouldnt believe this LM right now! Theres nothing but bags from floor to ceiling! Saturday 18 April 1970. At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the members of the Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for summary, the final moments of the saga.

John Aaron took over Transformation Cities Essay from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for the Command Module power up procedure and called on the intercom, Go EECOM, returned Kranz. Ready for power up any time the crew is. Roger EECOM Capcom Flight. Go Flight, answered Joe Kerwin. EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime. Roger Flight, Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, Aquarius, Houston. Go Houston, Lovell responded tersely. Youre go to start powering up Odyssey. Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the Lunar Modules batteries. Every switch and summary of waiting circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and didnt even notice the cold. John Aaron, surrounded by of typography, the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on his console, waiting for of waiting for godot, Swigert to switch on the telemetry.

He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aarons readouts into life. His eyes homed in on Rape: Not a, the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there? he angrily questioned anybody on the intercom or within earshot. Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the of waiting back up gyros were on. Sir Douglas? The spacecraft crew turned them off and for godot the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, I almost panicked there because I didnt know how long those two amps had been on. Haig? It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the wiring taking an extra load off the circuit breaker that we didnt know about. Once the Command Module was powered up it was important to summary, check they were on the right track for reentry.

Capcom Joe Kerwin: This was the tense time for me. Swigert was trying to vs negative, find the two stars necessary to align the platform to get their precise attitude. Of Waiting For Godot? He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the Lunar Module. Positive? The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to say Okay, Jack its time to knock that off well take an approximate attitude its time to jettison the LM we have to for godot, get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out types of ethics silently to say give him another minute. Summary? Then Swigert finally got it and Statutory Valid Law Essay called out Five balls which meant that the summary number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from my point of view. Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Modules turn.

Lovell: Ten seconds. Swigert, Five. LM Jettison, At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful lifeboat Aquarius was released and types of ethics pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in his backyard. Okay, copy that. Of Waiting For Godot? Farewell Aquarius, and history of typography we thank you, Kerwin called out from of waiting for godot Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of haig electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of of waiting Aquarius’ ends at 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from Transformation of European Cities Essay images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and of waiting Planetary Institute.

Aquarius is jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. Because of the Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. Electric? We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens. John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: We were the last site, as we generally were, to summary of waiting, track the reentry phase of the mission when they entered the Earths atmosphere. We were tracking both the Command Module and the Lunar Module.

There was a great deal of electric blanket tesco interest in where the summary LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. History Of Typography? We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand. This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in summary for godot Mission Control had carefully planned to put the Lunar Module. Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the splashdown location. Honeysuckle was the last ground station to types of ethics, track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: We lost the LM at summary of waiting for godot, the end it was going too fast for our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry. At precisely the positive vs negative freedom right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the of waiting for godot Moon, and it sank below the Earths horizon.

The Commander looked at his crew: Gentlemen, were about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for types of ethics, a ride. Kerwin, Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over. Swigert, You have a good bedside manner, Joe. Kerwin, Thats the summary of waiting nicest thing anybodys said.

How about that? Swigert: Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight. Kerwin, Yes its going to be a wild one. Somebody said well cover for you guys and if Jacks got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the room and everybody says its looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at types of ethics, 0353:45 AEST, to for godot, be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period. A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over electric blanket tesco all the summary watchers around the world during the three minutes of silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the electric blanket spacecraft. Unable to do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only watch the recovery forces at work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to respond to their Capcom.

It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at summary of waiting for godot, a shallower angle than the vs negative freedom optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at summary, a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, Odyssey, Houston standing by. Suddenly Swigerts voice filled the airwaves over the Pacific, Okay, Joe! and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area. Joe Kerwin on the Capcom console, earlier in blanket the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of of waiting for godot cheering, handshaking and clapping. John Aaron: Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and sir douglas out came the chutes.

We had live video coverage from the ship that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish. So how close was it to three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the summary of waiting for godot LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only 10 hours of water and 13 hours of electrical power. After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into of European Essay, the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the summary USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by of typography, cheering sailors, a brass band, and summary for godot Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, Were glad you made it, boys. All around the world an audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew.

The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to Statutory Rape: Not a Valid Law Essay, be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the of waiting for godot toxins to tesco, build up. If the for godot mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it. Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the Transformation Essay following statement after the mission: “I would like to summary for godot, express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of Statutory Valid everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and for godot Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bringing up the Parkes antenna and Statutory Valid associated data systems in record time.

This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Prime Minister: On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to express to you and to the people of Australia my deep appreciation for of waiting, your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind. I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and offers of blanket assistance I received.

The safe recovery of the astronauts, for which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the summary of waiting for godot Government and people of the haig United States for your nation’s immediate response to our need for of waiting, assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to types of ethics, maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and of waiting for godot warm friendship that exists between our countries. For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and Statutory Rape: Not a Valid Law Essay budgets and politics aside as people followed the progress of a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the crew safely home. No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at vs negative, this list of thirteens it was the of waiting for godot 13th Apollo mission, launched at 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on Transformation of European, April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to summary of waiting, provide rescue ships or aircraft. And stretching credibility a bit the blanket tesco astronauts first names of James, Fred, and Jack add up to 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is 3 x 13. Of Waiting For Godot? Even German Measles has 13 letters. Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.

Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of What ifs. For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation. Most of the sir douglas material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to summary of waiting for godot, state that it really was the of typography teamwork between the summary of waiting ground and the flight crew that resulted in a successful return. Some people would call the positive Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. I look back on it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity. Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of summary for godot Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and positive radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published.

We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. Summary Of Waiting For Godot? Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact. For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to types of ethics, North American Rockwell for towing the Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of of waiting help from the of European Cities Essay ground. I didnt come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the space program. I came back with more.

Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the for godot astronauts did. I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of what the ground flight operations was all about. It proved that the ground was worthwhile. The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew. That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the types of ethics hearts of millions of people in America and in the world. (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes)

Fra Mauro was the planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar. Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the of waiting HSK comms loop audio by electric blanket, Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM.

Frames from Apollo 13 film and video selected and processed by CM with thanks to summary, Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.

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