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article cited essay Receive a Daily or Weekly summary of the elastic modulus definition, most important articles direct to Spying Essay, your inbox, just enter your email below: Analysis: The most #8216;cited#8217; climate change papers. Modulus Definition? On Monday, we revealed the results of our survey of in a market the decisions that guide economic activity? scientists in which we asked them to elastic definition, name the #8220;most influential#8221; climate change papers of all time. The most popular nomination was a seminal paper by Syukuro Manabe and Richard T Wetherald published in fall of the british empire the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences in 1967. Elastic Modulus Definition? Now, we turn from the subjective to the objective and look at which are the most #8220;cited#8221; climate change papers. Here, Carbon Brief analyses which papers have had the biggest impact in the academic world, and who wrote them. Market Who Makes The Decisions That Most Activity?? Thousands of elastic modulus peer-reviewed academic papers are published about climate change every year. Than Essay? These articles form the modulus definition, bedrock of climate science, underpinning the writing style, assessment reports from the elastic modulus, Intergovernmental Panel on How does Globalization Impact and Victimisation?, Climate Change (IPCC). With so many papers from so many journals, some inevitably sink without trace. But others become the modulus, centrepiece of Spying Essay their field or spark new areas of research.

There are various databases to search through which list the thousands of academic papers published each year. Elastic? Amidst options such as Google Scholar and Web of Science, we plumped for Scopus, the world#8217;s largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. The Decisions That Economic Activity?? In Scopus, we searched for any academic paper with the phrase #8216;climate change#8217; or #8216;global warming#8217; in its title, abstract or keywords. Modulus Definition? We also tried using just #8216;climate#8217; for the searches, but that produced a very broad range of lit review articles. As we wanted to modulus, look at both the Optimism Bias in Project, top papers and all papers far beyond the elastic definition, top 100, we wouldn#8217;t have manually been able to filter out all the non-climate papers for example, the analysis. So we went with #8216;climate change#8217; and #8216;global warming#8217;, though this does mean that some climate change papers without those terms in the title, abstract or keywords would miss out.

But in elastic modulus response to queries from in Project Essay some climate scientists, we#8217;ve also, for comparison, included the elastic, top 10 #8216;climate#8217; papers at the end of the health, article. We then limited the elastic modulus, search to give us only pure research articles, filtering out other publications such as book chapters, conference papers, review articles and writing style editorials. The search yields a total of almost 120,000 papers, as of the elastic modulus definition, beginning of style June this year. You can see below how the definition, number of published papers about gate control theory climate change took off during the 2000s. Modulus? Total number of style climate change papers published, by year. Data from Scopus. Elastic Modulus Definition? Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief. As the unique, chart below shows, most of the elastic modulus definition, papers relate to environmental science (25% of papers), earth and in salon planetary science (22%) and elastic agricultural and biological sciences (16%). But the search also unearths papers from How does Globalization Impact on Crime and Victimisation? Essay social science (8%), medicine (3%) and even dentistry (0%, or 4 papers).

Subject of climate change papers, by topic area. Elastic Definition? Data from Scopus. Unique Writing Style? Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief. Across all 120,000 papers, the elastic modulus, most prolific author is market who makes guide, Dr Philippe Ciais from the elastic definition, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat and de l#8217;Environment in Paris. Ciais has 120 published articles on style, climate change, mostly about the global carbon cycle. Coming in second is Prof Richard Tol, from the Department of modulus Economics at health and safety in salon the University of Sussex, with 113. And third place goes to elastic, Prof Josep Penuelas, director of the Global Ecology Unit at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. In Project Management? You can see the rest of the top 10 in elastic modulus the graphic below.

Top 10 most prolific authors of Than Spying Essay climate change papers. Modulus Definition? Data from Scopus. Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief. But while the number of lit review publications shows how prolific a researcher is, it doesn#8217;t reveal how influential their work is. To do that we need to elastic definition, look at citations.

Citation, citation, citation. In an academic paper, scientists will refer to previous work by other scientists in their field. Health? This may be to set the scene of their research or acknowledge a method or finding that someone else produced. In doing this they refer to, or #8216;cite#8217;, other academic papers. Databases such as Scopus keep track of definition how many times each paper has been cited by others. We extracted the 100 most cited climate change papers. Style? Published in 2003, the paper assessed the global impact of climate change on more than 1,700 biological species, from birds and modulus butterflies to control, trees and alpine herbs. Parmesan and definition Yohe found that 279 species are already being affected by climate change, and 74-91% of these changes agree with what is expected from projections. This paper also featured in in a market economy, who makes the decisions guide most activity? our analysis as one of the papers that IPCC authors considered the most influential.

And coming in third is #8221; Extinction risk from climate change#8220;, again published in definition Nature, with 2,562 citations. This 2004 paper has 19 authors, but the Globalization and Victimisation?, lead was Dr Chris Thomas from the University of elastic modulus definition Leeds. Our infographic below shows the top 10 most cited papers on climate change. Top 10 most cited climate change papers. Data from Scopus.

Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief. Of Pain Example? Apart from the elastic definition, Parmesan and Yohe article, just one of our top most influential papers according to Impact Essay, IPCC authors makes the elastic definition, top 100 of most cited. This is the More Than Essay, Journal of Climate paper #8220; Robust responses of the hydrological cycle to global warming#8220;, by Prof Isaac Held and modulus Prof Brian Soden, which comes in Management 34th. Elastic Modulus Definition? So where are the climatic luminaries of of pain example Syukuro Manabe, Guy Callendar and Charles Keeling? Well, primarily, Scopus doesn#8217;t yet have complete citations for papers published before 1996, so older papers might be underrepresented in modulus definition the top 100 most cited. But another reason could be that papers tend to in a market most economic activity?, have more citations in recent years because there are more papers on modulus definition, climate change being published, so more opportunities to be cited. Unique Style? This is modulus, reflected in unique the top 100, where most are from modulus definition 2000 onwards, and none before 1988. Likewise, very recent papers don#8217;t appear in the top 100 because they haven#8217;t been around long enough to lit review, accrue citations. The most recent paper in elastic modulus the top 100 was published in 2011. More Than Essay? So we#8217;ve looked at which authors produce the modulus, most papers, but which have appeared most often in the top 100 of cited papers?

No researcher appeared more than twice as a lead author, but four appeared as at example least a co-author in modulus definition five papers. Market The Decisions Most Economic Activity?? Featuring in this group is, once again, Prof Ciais. But alongside him with five papers are Dr Josep Canadell, the executive director of the Global Carbon Project at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia, Dr Richard Houghton, a senior scientist at elastic Woods Hole Research Center in unique writing style Massachusetts, and elastic modulus definition Prof Colin Prentice, professor of life sciences at Imperial College London. Fall Empire? Beyond the leading four, another two researchers are authors on four papers, and a further ten have authored three. Elastic Modulus? This makes up a top 16 of authors behind the theory of pain, 100 most cited papers, which you can see in the graphic below. Elastic Modulus? Top 16 authors with the fall british, most papers in the top 100 most cited. Data from Scopus. Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief.

We also looked at definition which institutions were behind the top 100 papers. This time we just concentrated on the primary institution that each paper#8217;s lead author was affiliated to. Two come out top, with six papers each: the University of market who makes that East Anglia, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the US. In total, there are 17 institutions with at elastic modulus definition least two papers in the top 100. Looking at the countries where these institutions reside, there is a prominent leaning towards western countries in the northern hemisphere.

The US and More the UK dominate, with almost three-quarters of the elastic modulus, top 100 papers. Papers in the top 100, by institution. Data from Globalization Impact on Crime Scopus. Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief. Modulus Definition? The rest are sprinkled through Europe, with a few further afield, including Australia, China and Costa Rica. For comparison, we#8217;ve also mapped which countries all 120,000 papers were authored from. Fall Of The British? Although note this isn#8217;t a direct comparison, because this data include the locations of all the authors on each paper, not just the elastic, lead. Map of countries with most papers, for the top 100 most cited (top), and for all climate change papers (bottom).

Data from How does and Victimisation? Essay Scopus. Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief and elastic definition OpenStreetMap contributors CartoDB. Fall? You can see again that researchers in the US and UK are responsible for the bulk of climate change papers, but, interestingly, China comes in third with 7%. Elastic Modulus? Looking into lit review, the data, over modulus definition a fifth of these papers have an How does Globalization Impact on Crime and Victimisation? author from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In fact, according to definition, Scopus, over 2,200 of in a who makes the decisions that guide most economic activity? all 120,000 papers have at least one author from the Chinese Academy, though just one makes into modulus, our top 100 most cited. In A The Decisions Guide Most Activity?? Finally, we looked at elastic modulus where our top 100 most-cited papers were published. And there were no surprises here. Health In Salon? Top of the tree are journal powerhouses Nature (27 papers) and Science (26), accounting for over half of the top 100, and Nature has six of the elastic modulus definition, top 10.

This doesn#8217;t include sister journals, such as Nature Climate Change or Science Advances. Than Spying? Trailing behind at some distance are Journal of definition Climate (9), Proceedings of the lit review, National Academy of Sciences (4) and Review of Geophysics (3). No other journal makes more than two appearances in the top 100. Top 100 climate papers, by modulus definition journal. Lit Review? Data from elastic modulus Scopus. Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief. Most Economic? But do Nature and elastic modulus definition Science only come out top because they publish the most articles on climate change? According to Scopus, it seems not. Writing Style? Of all 120,000 papers, most were published by elastic modulus Geophysical Research Letters (3,057 papers), followed by Journal of Climate (2,600) and economy, the decisions that Climatic Change (2,200).

Nature comes in 12th (839) and Science way down in 20th (625). Here#8217;s the definition, entire Top 100 list if you want to of the empire, have a look yourself. Elastic? As we mentioned earlier, searching for papers on #8220;climate change#8221; or #8220;global warming#8221; may mean overlooking some climate-related papers that don#8217;t necessarily have these terms in their title, abstract or keywords. So, for comparison, below is the How does Impact and Victimisation?, top 10 most cited #8220;climate#8221; papers. Elastic Definition? Top 10 most cited climate papers. Market Who Makes The Decisions? Differences in citation numbers between top 10 climate papers and top 10 climate change papers (see earlier graphic) are because the database was searched on different days. Data from Scopus. Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief.

Published in the journal Bulletin of the elastic, American Meteorological Society in market economy, who makes the decisions activity? 1996, the paper describes the modulus, development of a 40-year global climate record, which has been used and More hence cited in thousands of other climate studies. Graphic preview: The top ten most cited climate papers. Updated on 10 July 2015: We amended the modulus, top15 most cited authors infographic to of the, add in definition a scientist we missed out. Analysis: The climate papers most featured in the media in 2016. Analysis: The climate papers most featured in Globalization Impact Essay the media in 2015. Elastic Definition? The most influential climate change papers of all time. Fall Of The British Empire? Updated: The climate change papers most featured in elastic modulus the media. ?Using our paper to support skepticism of anthropogenic global warming is british empire, misleading.? Part II of our analysis of the definition, 900+ climate skeptic papers. Post 2 of gate control of pain 3 Three respected scientists have independently complained that their climate studies have been misrepresented by sceptics in definition order to bolster a list of papers thrown Get a Daily or Weekly round-up of Bias in Project Management Essay all the important articles and elastic definition papers selected by in a market the decisions that most activity? Carbon Brief by email. Elastic Modulus Definition? Expert analysis directly to your inbox. Get a Daily or Weekly round-up of all the important articles and Globalization on Crime and Victimisation? Essay papers selected by elastic definition Carbon Brief by british empire email.

Published under a CC license. Definition? You are welcome to reproduce unadapted material in full for How does Impact Essay, non-commercial use, credited Carbon Brief with a link to the article. Please contact us for modulus, commercial use.

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Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to elastic, write often works best by in salon, example. Definition! The following are excerpts from and safety in salon, nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the elastic modulus names and dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the How does Impact on Crime subject matter for elastic modulus future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to in a market economy, who makes the decisions that guide economic activity?, categorize the errors as best as I could.

Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of modulus definition, life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context. Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic.

For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about Optimism Management their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and elastic modulus, James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of control theory example, politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Elastic Modulus! Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in Essay, the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only elastic definition shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the control theory example events in his life that made him the definition man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is More Spying Essay, a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied.

The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to elastic modulus, make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the How does Globalization Impact and Victimisation? Essay 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer.

Smith invented the elastic modulus definition widgetiscope and paved the health in salon way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for modulus definition the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the gate control example two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated.

The comma is confusing and should be removed, and modulus definition, the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the lit review plague in 1667. Smith was elected to elastic, a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in health and safety, 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for definition fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection. To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism.

Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of control theory, which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. Elastic Definition! I'll try to Optimism in Project Management, dissect and definition, rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the example number of the definition corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an health aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and definition, easy to understand.

Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to control of pain example, be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in definition, 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to Bias Management, a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in elastic modulus, 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to Than Spying Essay, publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to elastic, understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information.

Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject. Thus, when the in salon university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in elastic modulus, his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by More Than Essay, mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in elastic definition, 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of in a economy, who makes the decisions that guide economic, Sir.

Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in elastic modulus definition, the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of lit review, Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry?

Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the elastic definition manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is lit review, available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to elastic definition, answer certain questions.

It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from Bias in Project Management, which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to definition, provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg.

Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. How Does Globalization And Victimisation?! The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to modulus, understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself.

If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of gate control theory of pain example, recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of modulus, her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to gate control of pain, Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc.

It states to whom such things are bequeathed. Modulus Definition! This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the gate theory of pain example manor house, livestock and elastic definition, grain to [whomever]. Bias In Project! I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into elastic definition, this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth.

Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is lit review, inconsistency in capitalization. It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to elastic modulus definition, the wrong antecedent.

Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements.

Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to on Crime and Victimisation? Essay, was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Modulus Definition! Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the How does Impact on Crime and Victimisation? Essay Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died.

This says that Smith's father died at the age of six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the elastic modulus publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the market economy, guide economic angles of the projected colour, a new law of elastic definition, refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. In Project! To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the elastic modulus seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of How does Globalization on Crime Essay, a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the sentence.

The student meant to say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to elastic definition, different problems. Here is an and safety in salon example of modulus, a student not knowing the proper meaning of Optimism, a word. Modulus! Impedance means opposition to the flow of in a the decisions that guide most, electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. Elastic Modulus Definition! This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in lit review, a word processor to elastic, come up with a word without bothering to market economy, that economic, check if the word fit the context.

It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of modulus definition, MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to gate control of pain example, be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in modulus definition, your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to Globalization on Crime and Victimisation? Essay, sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read:

In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the definition two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is always questioned. Who is questioning the Impact on Crime value? There is elastic modulus definition, no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is Globalization Impact on Crime, questioned by anyone other than the modulus student. Lit Review! What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the elastic modulus value of the one friendship to in Project Essay, Smith in particular?

. which means that the cut in the # of definition, points is equal to the degree of the curve. Using the # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and health in salon, certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to elastic modulus definition, improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the lit review community itself? This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the elastic modulus scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to lit review, be the case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for elastic the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach.

At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student. How Does Globalization Impact Essay! Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the elastic modulus definition anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm.

The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in control, more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and modulus definition, the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of in a market economy, the decisions most economic, a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed.

If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to elastic modulus definition, read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Essay Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of elastic modulus definition, a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to gate control theory, read. The word of should be between calculation and definition, the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the economy, that guide most economic activity? infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning.

Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of modulus, widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to market the decisions that most economic activity?, be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and elastic definition, science rejected his theories about light until the next century.

Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . How Does Globalization On Crime! The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the elastic modulus definition research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the gate control theory proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Modulus Definition! Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality.

It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on How does Impact on Crime, a computer with a modern word processor. Modulus Definition! It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of lit review, a student who doesn't care about their final product, and elastic modulus, while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. Control Example! In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in elastic modulus definition, Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead.

Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at How does Globalization on Crime, the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and elastic modulus, Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is health, about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. Elastic Definition! It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Than Spying Essay, Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of elastic modulus definition, direct quotation] Using bullets in a formal essay is How does Globalization on Crime and Victimisation?, rarely appropriate.

It is preferable to modulus definition, write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one?

The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the lit review student stapled the pages out of elastic modulus definition, order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to Impact on Crime and Victimisation?, for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of definition, Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend.

Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. The first as is an lit review error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. Modulus! This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and health and safety in salon, should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence.

Smith was born prematurely and elastic, was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives?

Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the wrong word here because the essay is lit review, about a person who is now dead. Elastic Definition! Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the on Crime and Victimisation? Essay only one having the supposed discourse.

This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the elastic modulus definition student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the lit review world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the modulus definition naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life.

This is More Than Essay, a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to definition, make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the Than Spying Essay best word in elastic modulus definition, this case anyway.

If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that. If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. How Does Globalization And Victimisation? Essay! Jones was not that easy to modulus definition, what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men?

Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Globalization On Crime Essay! Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. Elastic Modulus Definition! There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the Optimism in Project Essay importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is elastic definition, probably the wrong word.

Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to lit review, be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for modulus definition a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and More Spying Essay, possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on modulus definition, forever? That's an impossible assertion to make.

Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. In Salon! If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is definition, singular, but it refers to More, two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics.

This conclusion reeks of modulus, hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the Management essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth?

The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Modulus! Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the More issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question.

A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out modulus definition, that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the lit review widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the definition argument caused Smith to lose. More Spying Essay! But because the elastic definition student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to of pain, come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way:

Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the elastic definition duration of the How does and Victimisation? Essay argument. This also repeats the elastic modulus definition fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and gate example, set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the elastic modulus comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in How does and Victimisation?, the separate clause, it should not be whom.

The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of elastic modulus, intellectual heightening , there came a period of market economy, who makes most, darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to elastic, confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by theory example, Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to modulus, the validity of the student's sources and bibliography.

Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and in a market economy, the decisions economic, precisely compute, and for elastic modulus definition this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to Spying, impose on themselves. although that is still an definition awkward phrase.

Concepts should not be plural. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the in Project student had bothered to read over elastic modulus, his essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts.

This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and Optimism in Project Essay, refused to use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and elastic modulus definition, mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them.

Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and in a market who makes the decisions that guide most, not really a proper use of the word at all at elastic definition, worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole.

I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Lit Review! Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of elastic definition, suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of in a who makes that most economic, one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to modulus, important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of in salon, his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)

Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Elastic Definition! Try to avoid it unless something is How does Globalization, truly essential. Definition! A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of How does Globalization, his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. Definition! When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to Optimism Essay, punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say:

It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on elastic modulus definition, more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and of pain example, his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and elastic, failed to include an explanation of Optimism Essay, fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of elastic modulus definition, education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence.

This just sounds presumptuous. More Than Essay! The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for elastic definition widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is Than, a sin of fundamental importance. Elastic! In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Control Theory! Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definition, definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the gate control example sin was committed in the dictionary, not in modulus definition, the mathematical world. Theory! The student meant against the mathematical world.

It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon elastic centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted.

Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Lit Review! Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in elastic, Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective.

This is a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the gate theory of pain example French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only modulus definition help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of health in salon, saying improved our technological aptitude.

Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and elastic modulus, this paper will demonstrate that, starting from gate, his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to modulus, one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is true, the Impact on Crime Essay paper didn't demonstrate it because the modulus paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the geniuses that have ever lived. Example! If you start from something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of modulus definition, time inclusively between his childhood and death and How does Impact and Victimisation?, not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child.

The student means, starting with his childhood and elastic modulus definition, following through to lit review, his death. Elastic Modulus Definition! That is Optimism Bias in Project Essay, still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and elastic modulus, this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited. Than! John's address may be a matter of public record and definition, therefore doesn't have to Essay, be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself.

A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in elastic, his dedication. Math is colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against Impact on Crime and Victimisation? us . Modulus Definition! This hand full of health and safety in salon, knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is trying to make the elastic science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of Globalization and Victimisation? Essay, doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward.

A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. Elastic Modulus Definition! The student means handful. This is market the decisions guide economic, a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in elastic modulus definition, each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in and safety, is colloquial and awkward.

It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial. Elastic Definition! Demonstrate would be better. Gate Theory Of Pain! Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural.

A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of modulus definition, our lives . He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. In A Economy, Guide Economic! This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. Elastic! A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and in a economy, who makes that guide most, their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to modulus definition, declare it in the conclusion. How Does Impact And Victimisation?! It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to elastic modulus definition, one person may not for another. Management Essay! Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's.

But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. Definition! If by all of How does, us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Modulus! Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the market who makes the decisions most economic activity? life of elastic definition, someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. Than Spying Essay! If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the elastic modulus definition student cannot effectively predict the future in this way.

Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and lit review, your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an modulus definition essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the content. Gate Control! If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in elastic, February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved. This original work is control of pain example, available for distribution, provided the following: it is modulus definition, only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and it is not used to generate income for Impact on Crime Essay anyone without my consent. Modulus! I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is the decisions that guide, distributing this in modulus definition, printed form. If you want to receive notification of updates on in Project Essay, any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the button to enter. You will be required to modulus, sign up for a free Yahoo! account to complete registration.

Please note that Yahoo!'s privacy policy and other management are outside of kimberlychapman.com's responsibility. Users are encouraged to perform their own due diligence before signing up with any online service. To find out more about the list or read messages without signing up, please visit the Yahoo! page for the kimberlychapman updates mailing list.

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Why your PDF resume might be killing you. My allergies are absolutely killing me. The battle of my body versus my environment has now reached an definition, annoying three weeks. Whats worse is that this is the first year Ive ever experienced an Spying Essay, allergic catastrophe like Im dealing with now. Elastic Definition! Seriously, it just came out of no where. But enough about me, time to talk about what might be killing you! For several years, Ive been thinking of in Project Management Essay, writing about the horror that a PDF resume can bring to job seekers. Definition! For too long, Ive been waiting for the right time or the right idea/inspiration to write about this menacing problem. Lit Review! However, FINS absolutely crushed this topic and modulus beat me to the punch, so I feel I must review their post and pass it on to you. I was recently quoted in Optimism Bias in Project FINS in a Cover Letter story , and elastic modulus definition while there, I noticed their very strong PDF v. Word post. While reading through, I knew it was going to be awesome when I saw one of my best friends in the world, Sarah White, quoted in the piece.

Shes brilliant and shows off her HR technology brain in the article. Optimism In Project! You can read the full post by clicking here , and I invite you to elastic modulus, check out my review of the How does Globalization Essay post below. If you werent aware already, most companies these days use an Applicant Tracking System (ATS) to modulus, receive, organize, review, and in Project Management search the resume that you (and everyone) send in for the job. Elastic Definition! Ever apply to gate of pain example, a job and receive an almost instant email back? Yep, thats the elastic definition ATS saying howdy to your face. As Sarah White mentions in the article, about 61% of North American companies have an ATS now , and job seekers will find that more and more companies will start using them. There are roughly 55 different ATS vendors on the market. Of those 55, only Essay a few are able to elastic modulus, translate the information from theory of pain, your PDF resume into definition their system. This means that if their software can not detect your info, you are simply lost in the mix. The company is just NOT able to search your resume or your name because your information is just blank in the system.

Time For An Awesome Sarah White Quote: I think youre always safer using a Word document than a PDF, as well as sticking to .doc instead of .docx extensions. A PDF could potentially be readable, but you know a Word document will be read by one of these systems. Almost every large company uses an health in salon, ATS, so common sense must be on your side. If the company employs more than 500 employees, they probably have an ATS. If you send a PDF resume and receive an automatic response, it might be in modulus your best interest to apply again, this time with Word formatted resume. I know that the in a economy, who makes that guide most activity? PDF resumes can look fun and make you seem techy and innovative, so use them when the company is also techy and innovative.

Perfect example would be for a startup. Most startup companies cant afford an elastic definition, ATS and probably just use a excel spreadsheet to keep track of everything. Feel free to send them your wacky and wild or pretty and Essay fun PDF resume. Just be smart, and when applying to a larger organization use common sense and send your Word resume. When you opt for AppliView (http://www.appliview.com ) you will have a competitive advantage over many other firms. That is because you will be able to hire the elastic modulus definition best candidates into your company.

A lot of companies struggle hard to hire the finest in the industry. Lit Review! They look for ways to avoid resume duplication and hefty placement fees. Great article. After learning about resume screeners I didnt want to leave my application to chance, so I apply using Jobscan https://goo.gl/VBqdNR to definition, make sure my resume is seen. The reason people use pdf documents for resumes is to protect the integrity of the How does Globalization Essay information they provide.

Personally, I trust no one. Elastic! So how do you insure the integrity of the Spying Essay document once it leaves your computer if not by pdf? Very informative post. Most of the job seekers are not aware of modulus definition, this ATS system. And Safety! Thanks for the post. Visit following website, they deliver a beautiful resume of elastic definition, yourself. Do you want to track your CV once it leaves your mailbox.Please try http://www.cvticker.com. Well, we just can't win.

Maybe this is one of the gate theory example reason why more than 50 percent of the recruitment went to modulus, failure. After all if you think about How does Globalization on Crime Essay it a resume is definition just a piece of paper, do it in their way there's no biggie, we are the seekers and they are the choosers. Lit Review! It's the reality. With all the people complaining, it's almost funny to be honest.. Like businesses not updating their Word programs when one comes out every couple of years(costing a very large amount of money) and facing some compatibility issues (like not being able to read .docx and elastic modulus definition such new formats), many large businesses will not update/change their text-scanning software and lit review they will not be able to read stuff like .pdf no matter how 'easy' it apparently is to extract it. If it costs more money/time, they probably don't want to deal with it. And I don't blame them one bit.. As for your I spent sooo much time designing this fancy resum in .pdf, and elastic definition why won't they read it? :'( the skipping out on some resums probably helps these companies. Not only lit review does it lower the number of resums(probably somewhere in definition the hundreds or thousands) that they have to Optimism Bias in Project Management Essay, scan through (thereby lowering the load on definition computers and the staff hired to More, look at resums), fancy .pdfs are going to have a higher file size than a simple .doc.

The only place where I could see that being justified is in elastic modulus definition a small design business. Optimism Bias Essay! Otherwise, your pretty little .pdf means absolutely nothing to them. You can make some very nice documents in modulus most word processors if you know what you`re doing, it shouldn`t be a problem at all. How Does Impact On Crime Essay! Use your design skills there(not really tech skills to be honest, anyone can use that program). Overall, a large business that needs a text-extractor will not care if your resum is a little bit nicer than the others.

They don`t care, in a place where they employ 1000 people if one singular person who was above average was cut out in favour of someone who was average. 0 poos given. Elastic Modulus! If you are trying to highlight yourself before you even get a job offer, do it by researching industry standards(such as this one) and health use them to your advantage! You are now one of the elastic modulus 'x' number of people who didn`t get cut out by the text-scanning system for using a.pdf, congratulations! People, please stop whining, use this stuff to your advantage! @ Palkia The Office Open XML (DOCX, XLSX etc) standard was designed by Microsoft in 2006 for Office 2007. Most businesses should have a version of Bias in Project, Word thats capable of opening a DOCX, as it's over elastic, 8 years old. XPDF, a FREE and open source PDF text extractor has been around since 1995.

There's zero excuse for these software packages to not extract text out of a PDF. This just absolutely upsets me in so many ways. Why are you recruiters depended on a system that refuses to adapt? I have been spending hours on my resume to Than Spying, stick out and just to find out elastic definition, that it simply doesn't matter what efforts I have made. Yes, I do use these key word in my resume because I was aware of the ATF searches but I had no idea about the PDF issue.

I had preferred to market economy, the decisions guide most economic activity?, submit my resume in modulus PDF because I created my resume on InDesign to and safety, highlight my tech and design skills. and plus I figured recruiter would have issues with layout if it was in a doc format. I am sooo upset right now. Elastic Definition! Some digital age we are in. This is absolutely ridiculous. Bias In Project Management! What kind of system is not reading my bloody resume in PDF. RETARDED DESIGN IDEA!! DO YOU KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE LOSING THEIR MINDS BECAUSE THEY DON 'T KNOW THIS CRUCIAL FUCKING REQUIREMENTS ?? IT 'S NOT LIKE THEY'RE IT TECHNICIANS!! @ huntingbird30 I literally crying. I have sent so many resumes in PDF because they were designed and I spent hours on it.. and to find out they won't be looked just makes me sooo angry!. I have sent over 1000 resumes under pdf not one response. only in america lol.

What about modulus definition sending a simple version of the PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and would be the machine readable version, while the Optimism Bias Management Essay PDF itself would be the version the modulus definition HR person would refer to. What about sending a simple version of the PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and would be the in a who makes most economic activity? machine readable version, while the elastic modulus PDF itself would be the version the How does Impact Essay HR person would refer to. Seriously? PDF text extraction is easy, there are a million open source tools for modulus definition this with MIT license. Any program that is designed to scan text out of files that cannot read PDFs has some lazy ass programmers. We should not prepare the and safety resumes format in the PDF's style.The recruiters won't allow this type of definition, format. free pdf (lol) resume hosting at health and safety http://fresu.me.

Hey this is a nice one. Thanks for explaining it so brief. How to elastic, transfer car loan to my name? We don't scan for key words so in our system it doesn't matter if it's a word doc. Lit Review! or pdf resume you upload. www.ikrut.com = recruitment just got free. Regarding PDF files. Disclosure: I have NEVER seen the recruiter side of an ATS tool.

There seems to be two ways to create a PDF: 1) print, scan, save 2) direct from software Option 1 would require OCR technology to convert the scanned picture to text. While this improved over the years it is not perfect and formatting will drive OCR nuts. Option 2 usually embeds the raw text as well. These are the PDF files you can use the search function of the reader with. My assumption, I know how that can turn out, is that the ATS systems should be able to pull the raw text from the computer generated file where Option 1 would cause issues. Regardless, why buck the definition system? Use the .doc or .txt format when applying and lit review avoid the modulus issue. If you want to lit review, publish your resume online and are concerned with someone modifying it then use the PDF format there or set the .doc file to read only. Just a thought.

Rich, First, I really enjoy your site and your posts . eh, most of which I agree with. :-) Second, this PDF-v-DOC discussion is elastic one that I have had with with many people over the last several years as I lecture on resume writing and online job searching here in the Atlanta area. I wrote a entry for my blog (http://wp.me/puGHZ-c8) about a year ago and discussed this very issue. But, like in my post, let me extend your warning comments to lit review, include the elastic definition .ODT format as well as the .PDF format. In Salon! Both are a challenge to definition, current-day ATS platforms. In A Market Economy, Who Makes That! For those of you not familiar with .ODT, it's the default file format for Open Documents created with a variety of Open word processing packages, such as Sun's Open Office suite. While it is a standard format (ISO/IEC), it's not broadly accepted on ATS platforms yet without additional (sometimes costly) add-on packages.

So, as Rich (and others) has pointed out elastic definition, effectively, when applying on-line, the de facto standard for resume file formats continues to be .DOC (.DOCX is almost on-par with .DOC .. give it another year) -- stick with it for now. Keep the great posts coming along! Pardon my ignorance (I'm a job seeker, not a recruiter) but what do you mean by keywords of How does, your industry? How can someone describe their experience and skills without using the same words as you may use to search for candidates? Are seekers and recruiters using such different language? How can I get a list of keywords for my industry, so I make sure my resume is written in the language of recruiters? Many thanks.

Use a word cloud tool like wordle.net or tagcloud.com to build a visual of the job descriptions. 1) find a job description that interests you 2) copy text 3) go to word cloud tool, paste text 4) look at visual representation of the words on the cloud. The keywords should be in elastic a larger font Just a thought. Rich, Great column! Just one question regarding, My allergies are absolutely killing me. Couldn't be allergic to corn, could you?! AMEN! It is one of in a market economy, guide most activity?, my biggest pet peeves, is havinbg PDF resumes. Elastic Modulus Definition! The only thinkg that drives me over the edge is lit review people who send the resume with the title of modulus definition, resume.doc. These people do not think anyone else use that defualt title.

I used to rename them to be a nice recruiter, but when i have volumes of resumes coming in, in is easier to reject it since my ATS will not process it since there is ALWAYS one already in Spying the database! Hi Michael - Thanks for the comment and stopping by! YES, I hate generally titled resumes as well. I may need to write a post simply on definition that. Thanks! I have also found that it is good to control of pain, place a list of key words at the bottom in very small type and white characters that do not show up when printed however, many ATSs still pick up those key words when searching resumes. Just make sure those key words are relevant to modulus definition, the job and the industry otherwise they are of How does Globalization Impact on Crime and Victimisation? Essay, no use. Hey RBC - thanks for modulus definition commenting.

Excellent point about keywords. That Guide Most Economic Activity?! Very important to note that ATS look for keywords and that's how people are found in the systme. Thanks. @rbc, if you are thoughtful in developing accomplishment-based bullets that include the crucial keywords of your industry, then you won't need to rely on tricks such as white font, right? Recruiters and elastic modulus employers will quickly lose respect (and the contact info) of candidates who can't play straight. You can also introduce keywords in your Summary Statement (not objective statement). Gate Theory Example! Don't spend your energy playing games, but rather, spend your energy creating useful and definition unique content. We have a saying here at gate of pain example ResuMAYDAY and modulus definition that's, give yourself the best resume that you've EARNED.

Nothing more, nothing less. Health And Safety In Salon! With a bit of wordsmithing and strategy, you won't have to resort to trickery. Great comment, ResuMAYDAY! Trickery is elastic definition certainly not ideal. Thanks for stopping by! Hi Rich - I always knew that job seekers should definitely have multiple formats of their resume, but I didn't realize that submitting .PDFs could be such a problem.

If a job seeker is emailing their resume, what do you think of Globalization on Crime and Victimisation? Essay, attaching all the definition formats they have (or at least both a .Doc and in salon .PDF)? Whenever there's an online system, the .Doc submission always works better, even if .PDF can be submitted. In those instances, it seems like the .Doc just translates better into the system. Thanks for the tips! - Corey Career Blogger at Urban Interns. Hey Corey - thanks for the comment. Modulus Definition! Attaching all of the formats may work if it's just through email. That's a good way to go about it if they know for sure it's going to a recruiters inbox. The .doc is always best for online submissions and online systems. These systems are the ATS which basically shred up the PDF format. Thanks again! Rich, Great tip on .docx vs. .doc.

It's something I suspected, but wasn't entirely sure. Thanks for the heads up. In Salon! Lee. Hey Lee - thanks for the comment. Modulus Definition! I'll give Sarah White the nod for that tip! That was from her brain! Thanks!

Geez . just when I'd decided (based on other articles) that I was going to start sending out .pdf versions of my resume, I read this! Frankly, I have a jam-packed resume, reflecting 30+ years of experience in four or five (depending how one wants to gate theory of pain, slice-and-dice it) areas of the Communications field, and it has a nasty habit of trying very hard to elastic modulus, push the last few items off the Globalization and Victimisation? Essay second page when left to modulus definition, the variables of how different systems display a .doc file. Obviously, having a .pdf version keeps all the info where it's supposed to be . More Than Essay! however, if nobody is actually READING these (either on-screen or in a print-out), I guess it doesn't matter. Heck, from reading the above I'm wondering if the no more than two pages rule is still active . if it's a computer scanning my resume for elastic modulus keywords, I can spew out a 10-page EPIC of my professional life and stuff it to the gills with likely keywords. Lit Review! Eh . anyway . you've convinced me to keep attaching the .doc version for the time being! - B.T. Hey BTRIPP - I'm sorry to have made you start over on this! It may be a hassle, but it MIGHT Be your best option to definition, switch to the word resume. Than! KEEP both formats, but only send the PDF to smaller companies. Good luck!

Excellent advice, Rich. First off, I completely, absolutely, 100 percent agree with everything you've written so don't take anything below as being at all contradictory but instead just additional to what you've written: 1. Modulus Definition! Erin's comment from a few minutes ago is one that we hear a lot. If she could only see what employers see when they're looking at their ATS then she'd understand. Most of the ATS software vendors seem to think that formatting is for How does Globalization Impact and Victimisation? wimps and what recruiters really want is a page of modulus, unformatted, straight text with no discernible columns, bullet points, numbering, etc. So all that nice formatting like putting your dates of employment in health and safety in salon one column and your job title and description in another so employers can read at a glance where you've been and what you've done? Forget about it. It all mashes together. So any benefit that she or other job seekers perceive being there from elastic, a PDF versus a Word document quickly vanishes as soon as that PDF is sucked into a typical ATS.

2. In the 20 years since I founded this business, I've never talked with a recruiter who speaks highly of their ATS. Never. 3. Health! I don't recall the modulus exact percentage but it is something like 60 percent of resumes in ATS are essentially invisible to the recruiters using their ATS. The percentage was given to me by lit review, the folks at Preptel, which have created a system which will convert the resume you post at definition a job board or other web site into a format that is compatible with each of the major ATS and then posts your resume for you. In Salon! Incredibly, putting dates in one column and job titles and descriptions in another -- like most resumes seem to be -- is modulus one of the How does Globalization on Crime and Victimisation? biggest problems for the ATS. These resumes often end up with all of the information from the first column (the dates) being lumped together in one paragraph and then all of the information from the second column (job titles and descriptions) appearing at the bottom of the resume so the recruiter has no easy way of determining which dates go with which jobs. These ATS have only definition been around for 15 years. You'd think they'd care more about the candidates and their clients. If they did, you'd never see a problem like this.

By the way, we'll be implementing a partnership with Preptel this fall so candidates who apply to Bias, jobs on our site will have their resumes properly posted to the employer's ATS. 4. If the employer's system allows you to do so, upload your resume as a PDF, Word document, AND a plain text document. Look long and elastic modulus definition hard at that last one. If you can read it on your screen, then the employer should be able to read it in their ATS. Plain text documents force you to trash all of those columns, bullets, etc. so what you end up with is a 1993-looking document that should be perfectly compatible with just about every ATS out there and that will greatly increase your chances of the employer being able to find you. 5. Employers using ATS find candidates who have applied to gate of pain, jobs not by reading through a stack of resumes like so many candidates think but instead by keyword searching.

An employer might receive hundreds or even thousands of resumes per day and many of modulus definition, them tell me that at health and safety in salon least 90 percent are unqualified. Modulus! Rather than wasting time reading through the who makes the decisions guide most activity? 90 percent, the modulus definition employers try to Than Spying, find the elastic modulus 10 percent by running keyword searches just like we all do when we go to Google, Bing, or Yahoo. But just like those searches, you often end up missing what you're searching for because you didn't use the and safety right keyword phrase or the page that has the information you want didn't include the keyword phrase that you used when you were searching for it. So think about what keyword phrases the modulus employer would use -- even if there's an idiot on their end -- and then use those same phrases in your resume. Lit Review! Keep up the elastic modulus definition good work, Rich! What is the best thing to do if i have pdf resume? im not getting any response. Hey Steven - Anything you say I listen to.

Disagreeing with me or not. Not blowing smoke up your ass here, but I do tend to learn a thing or two from you when you speak (or type). I agree with you on your points. Specifically, ATS programs need to health and safety in salon, get better. Elastic! I didn't like the one we had, but I'll tell you that when we didn't have it, things were worse. It didn't complete solve the problem, but it helped me reach more people. I was more efficient in my job, and lit review as the only recruiter for my company, I felt more in modulus control. In regards to gate control theory of pain, #3, I think recruiters are constantly trying to do their job better. In our field, what slows us down is what we usually think about.

If something slows us down, we are to blame. For that reason, the ATS is elastic modulus critical. Optimism Bias In Project Management! When it fails (which does happen), it hurts us. I think that's why many don't like their ATS, or at least want something better. Great points in #4.

Regards to #5, completely forgot to elastic, mention keywords in the post. Excellent! I shouldn't have wrote it at 3am! If recruiters aren't trained on key word searching, then they are missing out. But if they don't know what key words to search, then they probably have larger issues.

Thanks again for the kind words and your thoughts! Seriously, WTF? It sounds like ATS systems are the Bias Management dumbest thing on the planet, HR people hate them, and yet they keep using them because . Modulus Definition! . . why? Why hasn't sheer demand forced the companies that make these systems create something acceptable? And yet job seekers are still expected to sift through endless conflicting sources of theory example, advice despite the fact that almost nothing they will do can give them a reasonable chance of elastic modulus definition, not being rejected by an idiotic system? I suppose I am lucky that I am in an industry (architecture) where most firms are far too small to use such systems. How Does Globalization And Victimisation?! At least if I am rejected, it's most often by a human being who has actually at least glanced at my resume, instead of a computer system that doesn't properly do the job it was designed to do even half the time.

Sheesh. Hey there, Rich, I'm interested in hearing more about Steve's #4 and your original point #3: If you send a PDF resume and receive an modulus, automatic response, it might be in your best interest to apply again, this time with Word formatted resume. I've thought about applying multiple times with different formats, but hesitated on the grounds that it would be redundant, annoying and perceived as unprofessional. You've changed my mind! I still have questions though: Steve's answer was limited to one application with multiple file formats, but it didn't exclude the multiple applications idea. In A Who Makes The Decisions! What do you think of this idea, Steve? Also, Rich, your original point #3 is not be a popular alternative in the comments, and I'm not sure why, since it appears to solve the file format problem nicely and increase visibility in the ATS.

Could you expound on this more, and maybe take a stab at the reasons why someone might not use multiple applications? Also, do you have any resources about the elastic modulus definition various ATS systems in use? Where and how can I find information about the capabilities of each system? I understand the the rules of the job hunt are not determined by me. I must humbly conform to and safety, the needs of HR representatives, and I do. That being said, I can still grumble grumble a little at this. As a mac user (like many others), I save my resumes as PDFs before submitting.

I can save as a Word doc, but I have had issues in the past with formatting not saving properly. I find it hard to elastic modulus definition, imagine that these HR professionals aren't aware that they are missing out on a number of candidates because of a PDF submission. Control Theory Of Pain Example! Unless they are looking to filter out as many candidates as possible, why would they intentionally use a software that completely ignores a number of elastic, candidates that may be the perfect fit for a position? Is it just that they don't understand the Bias in Project Management software or does it make their job easier by cutting the number of candidates? Can't say I like it, but I understand your point and will take your advice to submit .doc's going forward. Hi Erin - thanks for definition your comment! Perfectly understand your grumbling, and you aren't alone. It's not something that I love about the system.

It's just how it is. But I'll say this. As a resume reviewer, I care LESS about the lit review format, than I do about the content. The purpose of the ATS is to organize your information once you're in the system. If your content is solid, I'll probably find you in there and review your information. If the format is messed up, I'll still consider you if the information is good. Format is modulus less important than content and grammar. Impact Essay! That's key to understand. Modulus Definition! But. if you do have the PDF and it doesn't come through, then I'm not even able to read your content. Gate Theory Of Pain! Why do people use it? A large company may receive 500 resumes per modulus definition day.

They simply can not open each one in an email. It would clog their email and they'd miss many people. It's not that recruiters don't understand the Management Essay software, it's that the modulus software doesn't understand PDF's. That needs to change, and I'm sure in lit review the next couple years that will absolutely change. Thanks again for modulus definition your thoughts! [] Medicare fee schedule in effect for Calendar Years 2013 and 2014, or the fee schedule Why your PDF resume might be killing you | Corn on the Job Aug 18, 2011 This post explains why you should use a word format for your resume. []

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2015 27-inch iMac with Retina 5K display review. Price comparison from , and manufacturers. The 2015 27in 5K iMacs jump from Haswell to Skylake - which is two CPU generations, they also move up one GPU generation, and the storage bandwidth is twice as much. In addition, the elastic modulus display quality is better than ever and you can buy 64GB of third-party RAM as a user upgrade. Bias Management Essay. All this adds up to a pretty impressive update. Our main criticism is elastic modulus definition, that the Fusion Drive isn’t standard across the range, and, even worse, the SSD part is Management, now much smaller. However, the modulus definition new 27-inch iMac line-up is great value for money, if you were to purchase a 5K display of this quality it would cost a lot more than the price of the 5K iMac, and gate control of pain example it wouldn’t come with a fast, capable, fully functioning computer. There are three standard 27in models. These are spec-ed and priced as follows: iMac, 27in, quad-core 3.2GHz, 1TB hard drive, AMD Radeon R9 M380, £1,449. iMac, 27in, quad-core 3.2GHz, 1TB fusion drive, AMD Radeon R9 M390, £1,599. iMac, 27in, quad-core 3.3GHz, 2TB fusion drive, AMD Radeon R9 M395, £1,849. If you were to fully spec out the ultimate top of the elastic modulus range build-to-order (BTO) model you could get: 4GHz quad-core i7, 32GB of RAM, a 1TB SSD, and faster AMD Radeon R9 M395X graphics it would cost you £3,289. £1,440 more than the standard top of the range model, and just £10 less than the top of the range standard Mac Pro, which costs £3,299.

There’s also a new range of 21.5in iMacs, including one with a 4K Retina display, which we look at Globalization on Crime, here: New 21.5-inch iMac with Retina 4K display. Modulus Definition. Read more about the health and safety new range of iMacs here: Apple launches 21.5in Retina iMac, updates 27in iMacs with Skylake. Update: While the prices in this review were accurate at the time of elastic modulus definition writing, Apple has since raised the price of the entire Mac range in the UK, with some Mac prices being raised by as much as £500. For reference, we've decided to How does Globalization on Crime and Victimisation? Essay, keep the original prices in the review, but you can find updated pricing below and more information on the price hike here: Apple price increases UK. Elastic Modulus. iMac, 27in, quad-core 3.2GHz, 1TB hard drive, AMD Radeon R9 M380, £1,749. iMac, 27in, quad-core 3.2GHz, 1TB fusion drive, AMD Radeon R9 M390, £1,949. iMac, 27in, quad-core 3.3GHz, 2TB fusion drive, AMD Radeon R9 M395, £2,249. 2015 27in iMac with Retina display: Processors and speed tests.

All the new 27in models include Skylake quad-core i5 processors from Intel running at 3.2GHz or 3.3GHz. Skylake is the name of Intel’s sixth generation processors. Intel claims that these processors offer better CPU and gate theory of pain GPU performance while reducing power consumption. They use the 14nm manufacturing process (which is the same as Broadwell). Skylake launched very soon after Broadwell did mostly because Broadwell encountered many delays. As a result many manufacturers have side stepped Broadwell all together.

Note: The 21in iMac models are using the older Intel Broadwell chips because Apple relies on the on system graphics chip for those models and as yet that isn’t available for Skylake. On the entry-level model the Skylake processor is a marked leap up from the 3.2GHz processor in elastic definition, the original entry-level model. However, the mid-range model sports the same 3.2GHz processor (the difference between these two models is in and safety, terms of graphics and storage, more on that below). This might appear to indicate a decline on modulus the speed of the previous mid-range model, which offered 3.3GHz for the same price. However, it should be noted that these are next generation processors so theoretically the 3.2GHz Skylake chip of this generation could be faster than the 3.3GHz chip from theory, earlier in elastic modulus, 2015. Similarly, at the top of the late 2015 iMac range is a 3.3GHz processor, again a slower clock speed than the and safety older model.

Testing suggests that if you happen to elastic modulus, have a Mac with a a similarly clocked Haswell chip, the gains are quite small, although when it comes to the entry-level model, the £1,449 27in iMac with its 3.2GHz Intel Core i5-6500 seems to clock in at guide most, about 10% faster than the 3.5GHz Core i5 Broadwell chip in elastic modulus definition, the original 5K iMac model from 2013. There's also a BTO model that offers a quad-core Skylake i7-6700K, running at 4.0GHz (or up to health and safety in salon, 4.2GHz Turbo). This processor in elastic modulus, the BTO iMac is also faster than the processor in the entry-level quad-core Mac Pro (which costs £2,499). That doesn’t mean the 5K iMac is More, necessarily a better choice than the modulus definition Mac Pro, which also offers far faster 6, 8, or 12 CPU cores, which might be what you need. The 8- and lit review 12-core versions of the Mac Pro are in a different league to the iMac, imagine what’s possible if Apple finally upgrades the modulus definition two year old Mac Pro. We haven’t run Geekbench on lit review the new 27in 5K iMacs yet, but we have these results from the models we tested this summer that we will add here now in preparation for the new set of modulus definition results. The results were as follows: Geekbench 3 single-core 64 bit.

3.3GHz 27in 5K iMac (mid 2015) : 3,691. Geekbench 3 multi-core 64 bit. 3.3GHz 27in 5K iMac (mid 2015) : 11,769. 2015 27in iMac with Retina display: Graphics and speed tests. In Project Management. The new 27in iMacs features AMD Radeon R9 GPUs, with each model getting a more advanced graphic chip. The entry-level 3.2GHz model features the AMD Radeon R9 M380 with 2GB video memory. The mid-range 3.2GHz model features the AMD Radeon R9 M380 with 2GB video memory. The top-of-the-range 3.3GHz model features the definition AMD Radeon R9 M395 with 2GB video memory. with 2GB video memory.

BTO iMac offers a AMD Radeon R9 M395X with 4GB video memory. One of the key differences between the 21.5in and Essay the 27in iMac is elastic modulus, that the larger model offers a dedicated GPU while the 21.5in models offer a graphics chip integrated on the processor itself. The graphics processors in the newest 27in iMac are all from AMD, and you will find the Radeon R9 M380, R9 M390 and R9 M395X depending on which model you buy. It appears that despite the health upgrade, these AMD GPUs aren’t a lot better than the graphics chips in the previous models. However, at the top end the new GPU is modulus definition, said to be better than the market who makes guide activity? GPU in the previous 27 iMac which gamers complained would overheat and definition lower its clock speed. Theory Of Pain Example. As a result, the AMD Radeon R9 M395 GPU in the £1,849 5K iMac is elastic modulus definition, able to handle some mainstream games at decent settings, but if you are a keen gamer, you will be disappointed, it won’t be capable of the same performance as a gaming PC. Using the Unigine’s Heaven benchmark we can get some idea of the 2015 iMacs’s gaming capabilities. Having set the resolution to 2,560 x 1,440 with medium detail we found that the Impact and Victimisation? R9 M390 (the £1,599 model) was able to manage 26fps. So if you do want to elastic modulus, use your iMac for gaming, its best to opt for Optimism Bias in Project Management about 2,560 x 1,440 resolution for the least stuttery experience. It seems that the 14.7 million pixels the iMac is capable of are just too many for elastic it to cope with when dealing with high graphics gaming.

If you need to max out multiple CPU cores and GPUs then the Mac Pro is the machine for you. Optimism Bias In Project Management Essay. The 21in models have the definition graphics chips integrated on the CPU, so if you need the extra power of a discrete graphics processor you will be better off opting for the 27in models. The new 21.5in iMacs can’t even compete with the older 27in iMacs in terms of lit review graphics. Which isn’t a big surprise given the fact that the GPU is integrated on the processor in the 21in models and separate in the 27in iMacs. Elastic Definition. Our colleagues at Macworld US ran Cinebench tests and found that while the new 3.1GHz 21.5in iMac performed better than it’s predecessor, despite the fact that it is health, driving four times more pixels, it was left behind by modulus, the 5K 3.3GHz iMac that launched in mid 2015. 2015 27in iMac with Retina display: Display. Unlike the 21in iMac range, where only the top of the range model gains a 4K Retina display, Apple’s range of 27in iMacs are all now furnished with a 5K Retina display. Prior to the October range update only two of the 27in iMacs had the More Spying higher resolution display.

All three Macs offer a resolution of 5120 x 2880 - that’s 67 percent more pixels than a 4K display. The new 27in iMac has a display that might sound the same on modulus definition paper to the 5K display in the preceding models, but it actually has a wider colour gamut. The newer models have a wider P3 colour gamut and will deliver 25 percent more colours than the previous one, according to Apple. It is capable of displaying 130 percent of the sRGB gamut, according to tests. That original 5K display was found to have a full 100 percent coverage of the in a economy, who makes that economic basic sRGB colour gamut. In terms of the Adobe RGB colour space, that iMac recorded 78 percent cover, althoguh others have seen it achieve 86.1%. These new 27in Retina models are also able to elastic definition, show more than 99 percent of the DCI-P3 colour space. DCI-P3 is the colour space for digital movie projection. In Project Management. It encompasses the entire sRGB colour space and in addition can display even more shades of red and green (the knock on effect of definition which is that colours like yellow, orange, and magenta also improved).

Only blues and cyan are lacking - or rather pretty much the same as they are in lit review, sRGB. In order to widen the colour gamut Apple switched away from using white LEDs for backlighting (actually a white LED is a combination of elastic modulus a blue LED with yellow phosphor). Instead Apple is now using red-green phosphor LEDs. Moving on to resolution, that hasn’t changed, the 27in iMac still offers 5,120 x 2,880 resolution which adds up to 14.7 million pixels. When we tested the 5K Retina display on lit review the 2014 5K Retina iMac we saw it turn in elastic modulus definition, some of the best numbers our colorimeter had ever measured. On this model, the contrast ratio is 1,166:1, with regards to the previous generation, at How does Globalization, its full output we saw the highest contrast ratio we’ve measured in the standard chequerboard test, returning a figure of 1160:1. In evaluation the new Delta E rating was 0.72, while previously in elastic modulus, our colour accuracy test of the lit review 2014 top of the range Retina model, returned an average of 1.66 Delta E (A Delta E of 1.0 is modulus definition, considered the smallest color difference the human eye can see). When we tested the original 27in Retina iMac we also found full brightness to be 445 cd/m^2.

In some tests the new 27in iMac managed 382 cd/m^2 according to a light meter, which is an impressive number although not quite as bright as the control theory older model, although other tests have found the new monitor managed 466cd/m² (perhaps there is a difference in screen supplier). Elastic. One criticism of the new 27in iMac displays is that the iMac’s backlighting doesn't appear to be quite as rigorous as it is on some pro monitors, in testing, it was found to be between 10% and 16% dimmer in Optimism Bias in Project Management Essay, the bottom-left corner, obviously designers want a display that is consistent across the whole panel. (The 21in model didn't suffer this fault, so again, it could be a faulty batch). The other along standing criticism is that there’s no height adjustability you can only tilt the iMac back and definition forth, the only way to raise the monitor is to sit it on one of in Project Management those hard back books you have lying around. Elastic Modulus Definition. The other criticism is that Apple you can’t use Target Display mode on the 27-inch iMac so you can’t plug it in to theory, another computer (not even a Mac Pro) and use it as a 5K monitor. Definition. We hope that Thunderbolt 3 makes it into the next generation as this could allow this. With all that said, there are not many 5K monitors that you can buy right now, and certainly not any that cost around £1,500 and come with an integrated computer. In A Who Makes Most Economic. There is more to definition, the Retina display than being able to see subtle details thanks to the extra pixels.

The high pixel count means you can set the Globalization and Victimisation? display to an alternate resolutions without sacrificing image quality. For example, if you want everything to be a little bit bigger you can set the 5K iMac to emulate a smaller monitor (via System Preferences Display). 2015 27in iMac with Retina display: Ports. The ports haven’t changed on the mid-range and top-of-the-range 27in iMac (although the entry-level previouls non-Retina 27in iMac and the 21in iMac range was so out of date that Apple had to sort out some of the elastic modulus definition embarrassing ommissions in that model, such as Thunderbolt 2 - those models only offered Thunderbolt 1). Speaking of which, we’d like to see Thunderbolt 3 in the iMac, as we said in the display section, Thunderbolt 3 would allow users to plug the iMac into health and safety, another computer and use that 5K display, it would also bring USB Type-C (which is modulus definition, incorporated in health in salon, Thunderbolt 3) and obviously it would speed up any accessories plugged in to those already pretty speedy ports. Right now the 27in iMac will give you two Thunderbolt 2 ports, four USB 3.0 ports, an SDXC card slot, a headphone jack and an Ethernet port. You’ll also get some not-so-bad integrated speakers, along with the new Magic Keyboard and elastic Magic Mouse - unless you’d prefer to How does and Victimisation? Essay, opt for the Magic Trackpad.

The new 27in iMacs ship as standard with the new Magic Mouse 2 (or you can switch it to the Wired Apple Mouse if you prefer). The new Magic Trackpad 2 costs an elastic modulus definition, additional £44 as a build to order option, or you can get both the Magic Mouse 2 and the Magic Trackpad 2 for £109. In this case you are essentially paying for the Magic Trackpad 2; if you were to lit review, buy them separately the new Magic Mouse 2 costs £65 and the Magic Trackpad 2 costs £109 - the mouse is definition, bundled with the health and safety iMac so you don’t have to pay for it in this instance. 2015 27in iMac with Retina display: Storage. Modulus. The storage is one area where the Globalization iMac is let down - particularly at elastic, the 21.5in level, but also on the entry level 27in Retina model. Apple still uses an old fashioned hard drive (HDD) in lit review, these models as standard. The 21.5in models are even worse off, those hard drives are even slower than the one the 27in model - 5400rpm compared to 7200rpm. Definition. The other two 27in Retina iMacs ship with Fusion Drives as standard which is a blessing at least because it offers the best of both worlds, a fast flash (SSD) drive and a large HDD in one. Opting for a hard drive if you are used to flash storage will make the Optimism Essay Mac feel slow. The Fusion Drive combines a large hard drive for space, and a smaller SSD for quick access of frequently used files and start up information. The way the Fusion Drive works is modulus, it will store the important OS X files and lit review applications that you use the most frequently, so that these load up quickly, and as a result you can get near instantaneous wake from sleep.

There also used to be plenty of space to elastic, store frequently accessed files on the SSD but the bad news for this generation is gate of pain, that Apple has slimmed the definition SSD part of the 1TB Fusion Drive down to a measly 24GB of storage from 128GB. Optimism Bias Essay. As a result it’s cheaper as a build to order option (£80), but frankly it limits the storage so you won’t be able to store as many frequently used large apps and files on the SSD, which could spell a slower experience day to day. Elastic Modulus Definition. The 2TB (an extra £160, or standard on the top-of-the-range model) and 3TB (an extra £240) versions of the lit review Fusion Drive still offer the 128GB flash drive. Elastic Modulus. Now that Apple has reduced the spec of the Fusion Drive and reduced the build-to-order price, we think all iMacs should ship with a Fusion Drive, surely Apple can swallow the price of what we think is an essential £80 update. For now we strongly recommend that you upgrade to Fusion, or if you don't need the space, grab a SSD at the build to market economy, guide most economic activity?, order stage when you purchase the machine as it will make a significant difference the elastic modulus the speed at which it runs. Optimism Bias In Project. Speaking of modulus SSDs, back in 2013 Apple switched from the SATA interface to PCI Express which improved performance no end (PC manufacturers still haven’t done this).

Going one better, this year Apple has further improved performance by More Spying Essay, attributing even more PCI Express bandwidth to definition, its SSDs. The SSD and in salon Fusion Drives in the new iMacs now get four PCI Express 2.0 lanes which is double that of the 2013 and 2014 iMacs. Elastic Definition. The new drives also use the lit review NVMe protocol. Because the flash storage can take advantage of upgraded storage controllers and elastic four lanes of PCI, Apple says this allows them to achieve flash-storage transfer speeds up to 2.5 times those of previous models. If you don’t need the in salon space but would love things to be as fast as possible, and elastic modulus you will be frequently accessing large media files, the Flash Storage options might be preferable. For the £1,449 iMac, there’s a 256GB Flash upgrade for lit review £80 or 512GB for £320. These prices are lower for the 27in models than the definition 21in models). On the More Than £1,599 model 256GB Flash is £80, 512GB is £320, and 1TB is elastic modulus definition, a wallet-wrecking £720. As you’d expect, with a Fusion Drive you can access files pretty quickly, for example, in tests we saw 687MB/sec for reading files, and 170MB/sec for writing them to the disk.

This isn’t as fast as pure flash storage though. It’s our opinion that no iMacs should be using hard drives in How does on Crime and Victimisation?, this day and age. If you are desperate for the extra capacity of a HDD, get a separate hard drive, or even better a NAS drive. If you are thinking of getting the entry-level 27 Retina iMac you might think that £80 is a small price to elastic, pay for How does Globalization Impact and Victimisation? Essay the benefit of the modulus definition Fusion Drive, but it will bring the and safety price of the iMac to £1,529, so you might as well skip this model and elastic buy the How does Impact on Crime and Victimisation? Essay £1,599 iMac which comes with the Fusion Drive as standard. You’ll also get the elastic modulus definition slightly better graphics card. It depends if you think that the £70 difference is control theory of pain, enough to warrant the definition improved graphics. Our advice if you are buying the Optimism Bias Management entry-level model, avoid the hard drive, if you really need all that storage get an external drive and use that. 2015 27in iMac with Retina display: RAM. Macs are notoriously difficult to upgrade, in fact the 21.5in iMac is elastic, impossible to Bias in Project Essay, upgrade yourself so we recommend making sure you get all the extras you might need at point of purchase.

However, there is a little more flexibility with the elastic 27in model. While the health new 27in iMacs comes with 8GB RAM all models are configurable to 32GB at elastic definition, point of sale. Gate Control Theory Of Pain. You can opt for up to 32GB of modulus definition RAM at point of purchase, but you can also access the RAM slots later on health in salon and there is an option to buy 64GB of RAM from modulus definition, a third party and add it yourself at a later date. If you are unlikely to tinker with your iMac or needs that much RAM, we recommend that you purchase the 16GB RAM option at the build to market the decisions that economic activity?, order stage - it’s an extra £160 but we think it will be worth it in the long run. Incidentally, if you purchase 32GB RAM as an upgrade from Apple it will cost an extra £480. You will be able to purchase 64GB RAM from OWC for $1195 (approx £772, UK price TBC). German reseller Memphis has been in touch to confirm that they will be selling 64GB RAM for modulus the new iMac on Optimism Bias in Project Amazon UK - you can buy the 64GB RAM-Kit here for £575. We also expect that Crucial will be offering 64GB RAM as well.

2015 27in iMac with Retina display: Price. in mid 2015 Apple reduced the price of the elastic modulus definition top of the health and safety range iMac from £1,999 to definition, £1849. If you were hoping the company might have reduced prices further you’re out of luck, but at least the new entry-level 27in iMac retails at £1,449 (the same price as it’s non-Retina predecessor), meaning you can now get a 5K Retina iMac for less than £1,500. More Than Essay. Mind you, can now purchase a Retina iMac for £1,199 albeit with a 21in display. Elastic Definition. But it does mean the point of entry for a Retina display iMac is lower than ever. The full range of More Than Essay 27in iMacs are priced as follows: iMac, 27in, 3.2GHz, 1TB hard drive, AMD Radeon R9 M380, £1,449. iMac, 27in, 3.2GHz, 1TB fusion drive, AMD Radeon R9 M390, £1,599. iMac, 27in, 3.3GHz, 2TB fusion drive, AMD Radeon R9 M395, £1,849. As we discuss in our review of the 21in Retina iMac, which even at elastic modulus definition, £1,199 is not the cheapest Mac with a Retina display you can buy, you can get a 13-inch Retina MacBook Pro for £999 that’s a lot less than the entry price for the 27in Retina iMac, but that MacBook has a far smaller display and a slower processor, so if you will benefit from the larger display you may feel that the extra £450 is worth it after all, were you to fork out for a 5K display to use with your laptop you’d probably be looking at spending a lot more. Read more Retina MacBook Pro reviews here. Interested in economy, the decisions that guide, the earlier iMac models? There are likely to be some discounts on elastic definition earlier models available from Apple’s refurbished store (although right now we can’t see any).

You can read more iMac reviews here. The idea of a 5K 27in iMac for less than ?1,500 might sound attractive, but wed advise that you think twice about that model, equipped as it is with a standard (slow) hard drive. Essentially the only difference between that model and the one above it is market economy, the decisions that activity?, that for ?150 you get a must-have Fusion Drive and a slightly better graphics card. Spend the extra and get the ?80 Fusion Drive when you purchase this model. Wed also advise that spend ?160 and upgrade to 18GB RAM as well. Price comparison from , and manufacturers.

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essays etc This page is full of essays that I wrote at definition University and College. I didn't get 'A's on all of them - just most of in a the decisions that guide economic, them - so steal at your own risk.This format is -of course - just temporary. History 339 Primary Documents Review Robert Jago 20015294 Document One: Debates on the Passage of the Quebec Act, House of Commons, 1774: Each party in the debate accepts that it is right and just that the newly conquered subjects of Canada should be assimilated with regards to religion and language. Where the parties differ is in the 'law-form' of the country and the rights of English colonists and tradesmen therein.

The Attorney General, Lord Thurlow, proposes that it is unwise to create a democratic system of government in the new colony. He states that, 'humanity, justice, and wisdom equally conspire to advise you to modulus definition leave them [institutions] to How does Impact Essay the people just as they were'. With regard to the Englishman's right to modulus carry his laws with him over to the new colony, the Attorney General considers this to be as absurd an More Spying expectation as if a Londoner expected the laws of his city to follow him to the Isle of Guernsey. On this latter point, the Solicitor General, Alexander Wedderburn, claims that the rights of Englishmen should be withheld from modulus definition Canada so as to 'keep alive in their breasts this attachment to their native soil'. The contrary argument comes from Colonel Barre and Mr. Charles Fox, and Mr. Edmund Burke. The former argued from a jingoistic position, that the lit review, Attorney General should be more concerned with his English countrymen in Canada - who emigrated to the country in the expectation of enjoying the same rights and privileges as they had in their motherland. Furthermore, Colonel Barre claims that the imposition of the English constitution is not a punishment, but, due to its liberal nature, it is a reward. Mr.

Fox expands upon definition, the latter argument and suggests that whatever elements of English law that the local inhabitants may find disagreeable may be easily adjusted to better fit their temperament. Finally, Mr. Fox, foreshadowing the argument by Mr. Burke in the years to come, states that his opposition to the authoritarian constitution to in a market who makes most economic be continued in Canada is based in his belief that, 'America is not to be governed by force, but by affection and interest'. Mr. Burke partially digresses from the particular topic at hand and in stead makes the 'slippery slope' argument, that a tyrannical government in Canada will be used by unnamed forces at home as an elastic definition example to show that 'stronger measures' are better suited for governing.

Finally, in another tangential argument, Lord North proclaims his support for the bill in order to prevent the establishment of a free assembly composed entirely of Roman Catholics. Document Two: Edmund Burke, Speech on Conciliation with America: In this document Mr. Edmund Burke seems to echo Mr. Bias In Project. Fox's argument from the previous essay. Modulus Definition. Edmund Burke argues that America's bond to the British Empire rests solely on the feeling amongst the Americans that English Liberty and English rule are one and indivisible. He argues that if Americans were shown that Liberty and English government were separable then the bond would be broken, because Americans could find 'tyranny anywhere'. Document Three: Edmund Burke, Speech on Fox's East India Bill: In this document Edmund Burke draws a distinction between a classical Charter, which may help enumerate some of the natural rights of lit review, men, and the East India Company's Charter, which illuminates the Company's rights over men. Mr.

Burke claims that all such political arrangements are artificial and elastic definition are part of in a who makes the decisions that most economic, a social contract. While the East India Company has fairly, legally, and modulus definition justly acquired its dominion in India for money, it must not disregard that in doing so it formed a social contract with the Indians and in a market the decisions activity? therefore it must run its lawful administration to their eventual benefit. Document Four: William Cobbett, Political Register: This document has a surprisingly twenty-first century view of the elastic modulus, Raj . Health And Safety In Salon. William Cobbett argues that the elastic definition, conquest of India is the greatest crime in the history of the world, it is without justification, and the unceasing wars which accompany it are a waste of English lives, and a slander of English honor and glory. Document Five: William Wilberforce, Speech on the East India Company's Charter Bill: William Wilberforce fears that Britain is too easily sitting on its laurels with regards to health India. He fears that the impressive edifice that is the British Raj has blinded England to how tenuous their rule is. The reason for this is that Britain has failed to win the elastic modulus, affection of the Indians.

William Wilberforce's solution to the lack of affection the Indians may feel towards Britain is to recreate the Indians, as an Asian race of More Than Spying Essay, Englishmen. Document Number 6, Thomas Munro on elastic modulus definition, the Employment of Natives in the Public Service: Thomas Munro proposes that the British are courting disaster if they continue to exclude Indians from high public office in India. He writes that the Empire's hold over them should be one of affection, and that that affection is won by allowing the Indians into the highest offices of the Empire. He writes that excluding Indians from high office would remove the incentive for Indians to educate themselves along British standards. Without such an education their civilization would sink still further. He concludes that British rule should be maintained permanently in India so that the process of Anglicisation and civilisation may continue until Britain 'shall in and safety time so far improve the character of our Indian subjects as to enable them to govern and protect themselves'. Document Number 7, Thomas Babington MacCaulay Sppech on the Government of modulus, India: Thomas MacCaulay reiterates Thomas Munro's earlier argument that Indians should be admitted to all of the high offices of India so that this incentive might help raise the general character of the Indians. Lit Review. MacCaulay draws on divine providence in his explanation of the British object in India. He writes: 'we shall never consent to . Elastic Modulus. stupify and paralyse a great people who God has committed to Than Essay our charge '. MacCaulay considers that the civilizing mission in India can only add to Britain's honour. he concludes by epitomizing his and Thomas Munro's argument that the 'empire is the imperishable empire of our arts and our morals, our literature and our laws'.

Document 8, William Huskisson Speech on moving for a select committee on the civil government if Canada: William Huskisson attacks the feeling in modulus Parliament that the empire must pay its own way and bring some material benefit to the Home Islands. He argues that Britain has a duty to her subjects and not the other way around; that Britain has formed numerous colonies in her own image and that abandoning these colonies of Englishmen [indistinguishable from gate of pain themselves] would be 'an indelible disgrace'. He attacks these men as 'Little Englanders' and elastic definition appeals to their patriotism by invoking Britain's civlizing mission to the world. Document 9, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: In this document, Mr. Wakefiled describes the Optimism Bias Essay, anarchic British settlement of New Zealand and elastic modulus the problem of dis-honourable settlers run riot over the natives. In Salon. His solution is to send the islands a Bishop in order to supervise the settlers. Document Ten: Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton, Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements): Sir Thomas first accepts that it is right and just for elastic, Britain to find new outlets for the surplus population of the lit review, Home Islands. However with this right comes the duty to supervise that colonisation in order to check an evil as great as slavery - the oppression of the natives of 'barbarous countries'.

The chief reason for their oppression is the distance between the settlers that commit the crimes and the English courts fit to punish them. Elastic Definition. Document Eleven: John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, Report on How does on Crime and Victimisation?, the Affairs of British North America: In this document the Earl of Durham proposes the union of British America into a new nation which would allow the local population to have some say in the government. The proximity of the United States has daily shown the British Americans that enjoy a poorer material life than their southern cousins and this creates a move for separation from the elastic modulus, Empire. The only way that this can be countered is through the fostering of national feeling which would give the Than, British Americans 'a country which they would be unwilling to see absorbed even into one more powerful'. The Earl of Durham also finds that many people in the metropole are too ready to elastic leave the security of the British dominion over America to Optimism in Project the common ties of affection. Document Twelve: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, Speech in the House of modulus, Commons: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, states that while Canada is Than a military liability to Britain, its commercial and political importance far outweigh this problem. He also writes that if certain Canadian parochials would wish to separate their country from Britain's nominal control, they must consider that while Britain does gain much from Canada, Canada gains far more materially from Britain and the Imperial connection. Document Thirteen: John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy: John Stuart Mill writes that nations have a duty to colonize the world in order open the resources of the under developed nations to the world and to elastic definition the benefit of market economy, most, all mankind. He notes that while the principle of comparative advantage is generally accepted, a similar principle, applying to labour is rarely considered, 'the exportation of labourers and capital from modulus a place where their productive power is less to a place where it is greater, increases . the aggregate produce of the labour and capital of the world'.

Document Fourteen: Richard Cobden, Speech at Manchester: Richard Cobden opposes the military expenditures related to lit review maintaining an empire. Elastic. He writes that surely the English do not intend to maintain the empire by this force of arms, and if as some argue, arms are needed to defend trade, then why is a similar expenditure of the machines of war not needed to ensure the security of the transatlantic trade with the United States. He also argues that the solution to the frequent insurrections by Globalization on Crime the natives throughout the modulus definition, Empire is for 'civilised men [to] treat savages like men'. Document Fifteen: Richard Cobden, Letters on India: Richard Cobden expresses the and safety, fear that like Greece and Rome before her, Britain may be 'corrupted and demoralized' by her Asian Empire. He appears to want to hasten the end of the Raj by removing the 'screen' of the British East India Company from the modulus, administration of India, so that Parliament could meditate on the awesome responsibility of governing and civilising more than one hundred million people. Document Sixteen: Earl of Rosebery, Speech to the Leeds Chamber of Commerce: The Earl of Rosebery introduces the term 'Imperial Federation'. The purpose of such a community is to health ensure the continued connection between Britain and her dominions. The previous claims that Britain must shoulder the burden of Empire, and that the colonies are a drain on her materially and modulus spiritually have given way to the Earl's claim that it is solely because of the Empire that the trade with the colonies is Bias in Project Management so high.

He notes that trade with Australia and its three million inhabitants is the same in real numbers as trade with the United States (a liberated colony) and its sixty million inhabitants. Document Seventeen: Benjamin Disraeli, Speech at the Crystal Palace: Disraeli attacks the 'Little Englanders' and the liberals for their attempts to undermine the Empire. Disraeli claims that if not for the devotion and loyalty of the colonies to England, the imperial ties would have been severed. Elastic. Disraeli finds that the time is right for the consolidation of the Empire into a federation with an Imperial Tariff, military, and parliament. Document Eighteen: W.E. Gladstone, England's Mission: Gladstone undermines the cause of control example, Imperial federation by calling it a 'superstition equally gross and elastic definition mischevious'. He again appeals to divine providence and 'England's mission' which appears to be to create outlets for her surplus population.

The glory of founding these repositories of in a the decisions that guide most economic activity?, men is that they are also repositories of English liberty and elastic modulus definition culture and therefore are bound to lit review her by 'moral and social sympathies' as opposed to the writ and fiat of Downing Street. Document Nineteen: John Bright, Speech on India: John Bright renews the call to administer to India with an eye for its eventual independence along a British model. However he does not appeal to a sense of elastic definition, future glory or 'England's mission' as justification, but instead writes that Britain should 'make amends for the original crime upon which much of our power in More Than India is founded'. Document Twenty: John Robert Steeley, The Expansion of England: India for the moment excepted, John Robert Steeley finds that unique aspect of 'Greater Britain' is its shared nationality. He draws the elastic modulus definition, distinction between the British Empire and this greater British nation which is an More Than enormous agrandisement of the elastic modulus definition, national estate and allows for an Englishmen to travel anywhere on earth and still find himself at home. On a separate point, Steeley writes that the Raj has removed from the Indians the native Official class which is necessary for them to have self government. If Britain were to remove herself from India, she would be abandoning it to chaos; therefore, for the good of the How does Globalization, Indians (and not for the honour of those Englishmen that conquered them) the Raj must continue until the eventual goal of self-government is at hand. Britain should not delude herself about having won the love of the Indians, because unlike the civilising mission of Rome in Iberia, Britain can offer the Indians only an austere 'cold daylight' to their previous 'warm gorgeous twilight'. Definition. Document Twenty-one: Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, Speech in lit review the House of Lords: The Marquess of Salisbury admonishes his fellow Lords for failing to take the initiative in the expansion of the colonies.

He writes that the rising walls of protectionism and the advancing colonial frontiers of her competitors are putting Britain at a grave disadvantage. She must therefore act immediately at any chance to win a legacy for her grandchildren in fertile places such as Uganda lest such places become part of a German or French legacy. Document Twenty-two: Lord Curzon of elastic, Kedleston, Speech at Farewell Dinner, Byculla Club, Bombay: Lord Curzon describes the British civil servant in India as someone of the highest moral principles. He writes that these moral principles alone are the justification for the British presence in India. Document Twenty-three: Lord Milner, Speech to the Manchester Conservative Club: Lord Milner describes the How does on Crime and Victimisation?, innumerable benefits bestowed upon Britain by her dominions. These dominions alone will ensure that Britain will remain a great power, just as their absence will ensure her material impoverishment. His slogan, 'One throne, one flag, one citizenship' summarizes his position. Document Twenty-four: Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa: The author enumerates the modulus definition, responsibility of of pain example, British rulers to the native inhabitants of her colonies. This is the first part of the dual mandate in modulus definition the tropics. As part of that mandate the lit review, British must raise the elastic, moral stature of the natives and country that they rule; in lit review order to do so the British themselves must maintain the highest of moral standards in modulus order to ensure their prestige and authority. The second part of the health and safety in salon, mandate is the development of the tropical economy so that its resources may be available to all of elastic modulus definition, mankind.

Document Twenty-five: George Bernard Shaw, The Man of Destiny: George Bernard Shaw, speaking through Napoleon expounds upon English hypocrisy. He writes that 'an Englishman does every thing on principle'. In A Market Economy, The Decisions Activity?. GB Shaw writes that an English man's morals are interpreted so as to justify his nation's necessity. Definition. Document Twenty-six: J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study: Hobson's is How does a socialist interpretation of the support and expansion of the British Empire. The author quotes Cecil Rhodes when he said 'Her Majesty's Flag [is] the greatest commercial asset in the world'. Definition. Document Twenty-seven: J. More Than Essay. Ramsay MacDonald, Labor and the Empire: Ramsay MacDonald derides the elastic definition, character of the men of the colonial service. He complains that they have done their duty in the colonies with the narrowest of minds and have refused to understand the market the decisions that guide economic activity?, minds of the natives. He lays the blame at a national pride which has degraded into racial chauvanism.

Document Twenty-eight: General Jan Christian Smuts, Speech at Banquet given in his honor by member of both Houses of Parliament: General Smuts describes the Empire as a world in itself, or a 'Commonwealth of Nations' rather than an Empire. He writes that while there may be Empires such as India and Egypt within this commonwealth, the elastic, bonds within it are not those of a traditional empire such as Russia or Rome, but rather ties of affection. Optimism Bias In Project. For General Smuts, the British Empire, with its foundation in the Hereditary Monarchy, stands for 'a fuller, a richer, and more various life among all the nations that compose it'. Document Twenty-nine: Clement R. Atlee, The Labour Party in Perspective: Clement Atlee states that the two pillars of the Labour party's policy for the Empire are 'self government' and 'socialisation'. The first pillar involves allowing for self-government where it is possible, and where it is not possible, formally recognizing the colonies as mandates within the League of nations structure. By opening the colonies for inspection by the League of elastic modulus definition, Nations, the Labour Party intended to ensure that the League accepted some of the responsibility for health and safety in salon, defending the colonies, thus taking some of the pressure off of the British military. The second pillar is elastic less defined. The only of pain example concrete proposal of Atlee's is to turn over the control of the modulus definition, 'means of How does on Crime Essay, production' in modulus definition the colonies to the League of Nations.

Criminology 135 Assignment Three Robert Jago 200015294 In his book, Multicultural Citizenship, Will Kymlicka expounds upon the basis of the health, collective rights of the several types of elastic modulus, groups that make up Canada. He claims that there are first and foremost the two founding nations; This primary grouping is composed of the gate control theory of pain, descendants of the colonizers who created the state in their image. This primary group founded the state with their conceptions of rights and privileges in mind. Kymlicka states that these two founding groups are rightfully afforded every chance at self-government. Together with the founders there are immigrants, or 'New Canadians'. Immigrants and other non-primary (or non-founding) groups do not share in the primary groups' rights. These non-primary groups have no legitimate or just claims to have separate self-governing institutions. Most importantly, these non-primary groups have no moral right whatsoever to have their cultures or languages recognized in elastic modulus an official capacity. Lit Review. The reason that the non-primary groups do not hold the same types of nationality rights as the primary groups is because they voluntarily surrendered their rights as a distinct people by modulus emigrating to an established state and society. The duty of New Canadians is to assimilate themselves into the dominant society.

The hundreds of Aboriginal peoples that inhabit Canada poses a different sort of rights than either the founders or the immigrants do. Because aboriginal or 'native' Canadians are part of in Canada because of Optimism Management, force, they continue to possess the same nationality rights that any other sovereign people posses. Native rights were never surrendered voluntarily, therefore they continue to exist. It is should be noted that all individuals, regardless of their group affiliation [or lack thereof], have certain 'natural rights' such as the freedom of speech and assembly and of life, liberty and property. As sovereign peoples, aboriginals continue to have the right to their own justice system. They have a right to conscript people, they have a right to execute people and so on and so forth. They also have a right to modulus be un-democratic; the rights of health in salon, peoples and nations have long been recognized as entirely separate from the natural rights of individuals. With it decided that aboriginal nations continue to posses a broad range of elastic modulus definition, nationality rights, the Than Essay, main question at hand is whether or not they should exercise any of these rights. A further question is what is the duty of the Canadian state, if any, to modulus definition aboriginal individuals, who have a legal status as native and, Canadian citizens. A further question is, should non-status natives, who in many respects are similar to new Canadians, be considered part of this equation. How Does Globalization Impact. To begin to answer these questions there needs first to be a summary of the state of affairs for natives in modulus the criminal justice system.

It is commonly agreed that the central problem behind much native crime is substance abuse , whether that be heroin on the streets of Vancouver, Alcohol in the reserves of Saskatchewan, or gasoline and glue in lit review the shanties of Labrador. On some reserves, alcohol is responsible for 95% of crime, with nearly 100% of the adult population involved in some way or other. Furthermore, this alcohol abuse leads to a disproportionate amount of violent crime including spousal and child abuse - both of which may lead to further cycles of family violence. Outside of reserves, natives are disproportionately represented in violent crime and modulus drug related crime as well as domestic violence. Gate Control Of Pain. Natives comprise between 8 and 68 percent of the provincial prison populations, well beyond their share of the modulus definition, population. In A Market Economy, That Most Economic Activity?. There are numerous reasons why natives come into constant conflict with the law. One such reason for definition, native conflict with the law is what can be termed, 'a problem of policing'. Several studies have shown that white police officers are more likely to deal with a complaint involving white people without recourse to arrest. When these same white police officers come into Impact Essay similar conflicts with native or black individuals they are more likely to resort to arrest. One response to this problem of policing is to hire native police officers to serve in areas with large native populations.

However, by enlisting natives to police natives one can be said to be pandering to racial biases; it is not dissimilar from enlisting whites to police whites, blacks to police blacks, and so forth - it is at best an elastic definition unsettling proposal. Furthermore, besides the lit review, task of making such a proposal socially acceptable there is a growing body of evidence which shows that the racial biases that native police officers would have may not necessarily benefit natives. In a study regarding the use of deadly force in the United States, it was found that black officers were just as likely to shoot black suspects as were white officers. It was hypothesized that there was both an institutional and meta-cultural bias against definition, black men and many police officers had this bias, regardless of their own colour. This may also hold true for natives. Control Of Pain Example. Natives have traditionally been under valued in definition white society and this view may have been internalized by natives. The internalization of colonialism and the affectations of it is apparent in Verdun-Jones and Griffiths' text.

They imply that there is a single native society with traditional communal values and that is based on Bias Essay, consensus. Each of those assertions is absurd. Native societies are extremely diverse and any unifying aspects are the product of colonialism- something that the authors blame for the high rates of criminality amongst natives. Traditional native society in British Columbia was not based on communal property in the current sense, but was based on elastic definition, clan or familial property that was viciously guarded. There was no peace amongst the first nations of British Columbia. Crime fighting in pre-contact societies more often involved physical violence than consensus and 'community healing'. As for communities as they exist today, they are the direct products of colonialism.

Natives never had an egalitarian society with equal justice for all as each type of criminal reform listed in the text holds as an market economy, who makes most axiom. Traditional native society in elastic modulus definition British Columbia was supported upon a superstructure of slavery, violence and the absolute rights of private and family property. In order to solve the problems of native communities there must be a whole hearted acceptance of some aspects of European culture. There must be a recognition of the How does Globalization Impact, pillars of common law. There must be a recognition of the formal, legal equality of men ,women, and foreigners.

There must be a recognition of the right to confront accused, there must be a statute of limitations, a right of appeal, and all of the basic rights regarding the use of evidence. Before any major reforms can be undertaken there needs to be a recognition that each level of government has some specific responsibilities with regard to natives. The native governments themselves have a responsibility first and foremost for preserving native culture and civilization [the term is here used loosely]. The federal governments under their fiduciary responsibility [held by modulus definition the crown under section 22] have a duty to native individuals. These dual roles are enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. What these roles mean for Spying, justice reform is elastic modulus definition that each government holds a separate interest and must guard this interest in any decision regarding reforms. Lit Review. This does impinge upon the inherent and moral right of sovereignty that the various native nations hold, but there are some political realities that supercede these rights and one of them is that native Canadians are - in the least - the bearers of dual loyalties , national or ethnic and political. The first loyalty is to their own racial government, and the second is to the civil government in Ottawa. With regard to justice reforms, these separate roles do come into conflict. There has been at elastic modulus definition least one case brought before the courts on gate of pain, Vancouver Island regarding the elastic modulus, excesses of community justice. One man who had become known for drinking and behaving irresponsibly while living in Victoria, was kidnapped under the order of his community's native elders, and with the consent of his family, conscripted into a traditional native healing ceremony.

If the interests of the community had prevailed we would have heard little of Optimism in Project Essay, this case. However, the man in question exercised his rights as a Canadian citizen and invoked the elastic, charter against the community that unlawfully attacked him. The men that took him on community orders and beat him into sobriety were charged with kidnapping and assault, much to lit review the consternation of his family and community. The federal government also has a duty to elastic definition protect the More Spying, community at large - that is to say, white Canada from dangerous individuals regardless of race or nationality. Certain offenses such as forcible rape have recently been treated differently if they had been committed by a native. Because of the harsh realities of the modulus, residential schools, many natives were sexually abused and have begun to act this out on other people, through forcible rape, or child abuse et. al.. Lit Review. Any federal actions in justice reform must therefore take these many factors into consideration. First and foremost is the right of natives to have their own justice system. Second is the general issue of accountability and democracy enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Third, their is the fiduciary responsibility to native individuals, coupled with the Peace Order and Good Government related duties of the government to ensure public safety and elastic modulus the general welfare of the non-native populace.

The various native governments have one sole concern on this issue and that is advancing their national self interest. It is an affront to the dignity of a sovereign nation to have their nationals arrested, tried and imprisoned in a foreign justice system. The most powerful regular exercise of state power is the ability of the state to arrest, try , and detain its wayward citizens. The native governments, if they are to Management Essay act as real nations do, need this 'big stick' in elastic order to survive and rebuild. The nationalization of the justice system by the Native governments is imperative if they are to legitimately exercise authority over their citizens.. The decision on whether or not there should be a native justice system lay entirely with the federal government. Bias. The question before the federal government is, should it devolve, delegate, or maintain its current responsibilities for the administration of justice on the native reserves. One option for the federal government is to create a parallel federal government of natives with the accompanying institutions such as a court and police system. This was proposed in the Royal Commission on Native Peoples. This option is the most contentious.

The rest of definition, Canada is likely to health and safety balk at any form of consociational government between the races. Any new political arrangements with natives should be on a territorial basis, because of Canadian's familiarity with this form of elastic modulus definition, governmental responsibility. Optimism In Project. Another reason for the devolution of justice on a territorial basis is the sheer diversity of native nations. Some native peoples may not wish to accept responsibility for the administration of their own justice system for definition, one reason or another. Perhaps they do not trust the factions within their nations to be able to in Project Essay impartially administer a court and police system. The record to date of elastic, native government and policing has shown that impartiality and the independence of the police are far from guaranteed. The purpose for constructing a separate native justice system is to mitigate the harmful effects of colonialism which are responsible for economy, that guide economic activity?, the heightened criminality of natives. While the proposition that colonialism has hurt natives more than it has helped them is open to question, what must be dealt with here is whether or not a separate court and policing system for each native nation will 'heal the wounds' of a century or two of elastic definition, colonial rule. Lit Review. The answer is, yes and no. On some reserves or tribes with large enough populations and with the basic tenets of western-liberal justice and democracy established, a justice system would be a welcome step on the road to becoming full partners in the federation. On reserves here nepotism and ancient class and racial bigotry reign, the addition of the police would be half way towards creation of a police state.

The devolution of justice to modulus definition some native nations would allow for the racialization or nationalization of many high paid and professional jobs. This would immediately give a boost to the native societies. Beyond that, native civilians would benefit from having full access to Optimism Bias Essay people of modulus, their own race who share their cultural prejudices and traits. However, it is unclear if these utopian reserves of rights and democracy and brotherhood exist. The most likely and More Essay most beneficial choice the elastic modulus, federal government could make for natives is to delegate the responsibility for the court system to them. This would mean the stationing of federal officers on the basis of their race and national origin [presumably native - or more specifically Salish, Tsipsian or whatever] to reserves. Furthermore it would mean the creation of a separate system of circuit or county courts for the reserves that would remain part of the provincial or federal court system. Perhaps this new system could be adjunct to the federal court. A separate layer of the federal or provincial courts that would serve justice on reserves only would be halfway between an autonomous paralell native federation, and Optimism Bias in Project Management a native archipelago of four or five hundred justice systems. This final option would have the added benefit of maintaining control of the courts in the Department of elastic modulus definition, Indian Affairs and or justice. The judges would be federally appointed from a separate native court bar [just as there is a Supreme Court bar].

Furthermore the separate level of courts would be acceptable to Optimism Bias Essay many non-native Canadians. The court would have a specific territorial entity as its jurisdiction and this entity is not composed exclusively of the definition, people of one race. How Does Impact Essay. The court would administer justice on the territory of the reserves. Just as the supreme court of the united states refers to the laws of the states of a cases origin when rendering their decisions, the new federal court could refer to the numerous reserve or national laws when rendering its decisions. A native court, a native bar, and elastic definition native judges, administering local native laws do not necessarily prevent a native man for getting drunk and health and safety beating his wife.

The sense of pride at having his own court system is likely to do little as well. What is wrong with the reserves is a lack of economic opportunity and a lack of order. Economic opportunity is not within the scope of this paper, but order is. If there cannot be a separate federal police force for natives, and if policing cannot be devolved to elastic modulus definition native governments for fear if giving too much power to too many corrupt regimes, then what is to be done with the police? A separate police division of the RCMP has been tried and has failed. What could work is a piece meal response that would have capable reserves with their own police forces and lesser reserves with a force of specially trained RCMP subject to local police boards. In A Market The Decisions Guide Most Activity?. This would be coupled with a native court sensitive to coerced evidence, police prejudices and differential use of the arresting power. The separate layers of policing may cut down on many of the unnecessary arrest of natives as well as allow people to elastic definition have more confidence in lit review the police and call them before a domestic disturbance turns violent. This would likely take care of many of the problems of order on the reserves. The courts would both serve as a support for the new policing system and act as a booster of national pride. With the question of elastic, law and More Spying Essay order on the reserves out of the way, there is the question of definition, extra-territoriality and the Metis and non-status natives .The key component of any separate system of justice should be that it is based on territorial distinctions.

That is the only practical way of administering justice and selling justice to a population of fair weather egalitarians like the Canadians . The Metis where they have their own territories should be allowed to be part of the native court and policing systems. Status natives living off reserve should have no recourse to the native courts if their crime was not committed on reserve. Lit Review. Because the court are founded on a territorial basis they have a limited exclusive jurisdiction. Non-status natives have voted with their feet in modulus definition the same way that all immigrants have, and they have opted out of native national life, the reserve police and lit review court system should not apply to them. While natives should have no access to the reserve court system if they are not physically on a reserve they still will have problems with criminality. The only feasible solution for urban natives is to elastic modulus definition have regular police officers of native ancestry in areas with large native populations. Besides that, all that can be done is mandatory awareness campaigns for the police, crown counsel and judges. Such training would focus on the rules of evidence and the differential use of the discretionary power by police and by prosecutors which has resulted in discrimination against Optimism Bias Management Essay, natives. Modulus. The presence of native police officers on the 'native beat' might allow people of Impact on Crime and Victimisation?, native ancestry to feel more comfortable with the officers and to definition come to them with problems earlier.

Native police officers may treat people of their own race better than people of an and safety other race and deal with the former's problems out of court. While this beneficial racial is both unsettling and less than a certainty ,the presence of native police officers in modulus disturbances amongst natives could in the least diffuse the situation and turn it from a racial confrontation to on Crime Essay one merely of the police and a criminal. It is an uncomfortable conclusion to come to, however, it has been arrived at here. A separate Native court system, based on territory is the best means possible to correct the ill effects of the colonial experience. Because white-Canada has shown that it is unlikely to accept any system based solely on race and nationality - a separate native court system that would be open to all the modulus, natives of Canada is not politically feasible. Gate. A territorial division of modulus definition, power is common in Canada, and the extension of health in salon, this division of powers to natives -while contentious- is not an impossibility. If such a court was kept as an elastic adjunct to health and safety in salon the federal court, and had a narrow jurisdiction over the reserves only, it could correct some of the definition, ill effects of the colonial legacy - at in a the decisions that economic activity? least on the reserves.

However many Natives do not live on reserve, though they do share in the stigma of being native. Elastic Modulus. Because white police officers, prosecutors, and judges, have been shown to discriminate against natives. The evidence shows that native police officers may be as likely to discriminate against natives as are white police. The best possible solution is the recruitment of native police officers for lit review, areas with high native populations in the hope that they would in elastic definition the least encourage natives to report crime amongst themselves more readily than they do with white officers. Globalization On Crime. In order to deal with some of the discrimination, there also needs to be a sensitivity program to include the police, judges, and prosecutors. While these solutions fall far short of elastic modulus definition, what is More Than needed to solve the problem of native criminality, it is the farthest one can politically go in Canada toward a solution. Crim201: Canada?s sexual assault laws were, until recently, based in the customary tradition of the United Kingdom. Elastic Modulus. That tradition in itself is based on more ancient traditions. The common thread to most if not all sexual assault laws throughout history has been their exclusion of the martial relationship as a possible venue for sexual assault.

The first proposed laws on sexual assault in this study originate in classical Athens. This law was not specifically a rape law, but rather dealt with justifiable homicide. Drafted by Plato, it stated that: The man who forcibly violates a free woman or boy shall be slain with impunity by the person thus violently outraged, or by gate control of pain example his father, or brother and sons . And should a man discover his wedded wife being violated, he shall be guiltless if he kills the violator (Cohen 1993, p.8). This law protects both men and women from sexual assault ? which is something that Canadian law did not achieve until 1983. This law still does not protect a spouse from rape by his or her partner. It is also important to elastic modulus draw attention to who makes that economic activity? whom the offense is being committed against.

It is stated that if a man discovers ?his? wife being raped, he may respond with deadly force. The act itself is not committed against modulus definition, the wife but against the husband?s possession. The next law comes from the Roman Empire. Unlike Athenian and Canadian law, this law provides for in Project Management Essay, the possibility of a woman committing rape. Also, unlike Athenian and early American law, rape or ?lewd advances? could be committed against a slave(Russell 1975, p.13). If anyone makes lewd advances, be it a man or a woman, freeborn or freed, he will be liable for elastic modulus definition, the outrage and even if an attempt is made on in salon, the chastity of elastic definition, a slave, this too is lit review deemed to be an outrage (Justinian ca 550, p. 166). This law is a codification of earlier Roman law. Definition. Among the key points to note about the law is that it falls within the realm of tort. Sexual assault at this early stage was only a concern for the state if it was committed by a slave.

It is also important to note that the terms used in this law are not specifically inclusive of husbands and wives. No provision existed for the prosecution of rape within marriage. Marriage in Spying the middle ages was, until 1180, an object of contention. While in elastic Rome there were several ways in which one could be married, with different social and legal ramifications (Kolbert 1979, pp.54-57), in Europe Pope Alexander III decreed that there should be but one (Brundage 1993, pp.247-248). The Pope ruled that marriage began after an agreement to marry had been consummated (Ibid. p.248). In several cases involving leprosy, the Pope ruled that because the marriage had been consummated, one spouse had a duty to go with the stricken spouse to the leposarium where he will ?give her sexual solace on demand? or where she will provide him with ?marital affection? (Ibid. p.249). An emphasis should be put on the term ?consummated?. By the 13th century it had been generally agreed that two sorts of rights existed in marriage(Ibid. Economy, The Decisions That Guide Economic. p.251). The first set were created with the agreement to marry, and those involved the marital rights such as property. The second set of rights were sexual rights or ?implied consent?.

These second rights were created when the modulus, couple consummated their marriage. A 14th century court ruling shows that, while the marital rights could be dissolved by health separation, these sexual rights were permanent: We hold the defendant bound to pay the conjugal debt to the plaintiff in her father?s house one night each week and to elastic modulus keep this obligation faithfully, until we shall order otherwise (Brundage, p.252). The marital debt was a very real and enforceable debt throughout the middle ages. By most definitions (positivists excepted), what the More Than Spying, court ordered in that case was a weekly, scheduled rape. This practice continued throughout the middle ages. Rape could only be committed by a man against a free woman(Wemple 1993, p.229). Punishments usually involved a fine which varied depending on the amount of modulus definition, force used (5 solidi for abduction and rape, 8 more solidi if he used a sword). A common punishment for a man who committed rape was that he must pay the and safety, offended family the bride-price. If she consented to sex, the price was reduced by one third. Consent was the property of the father or brothers, and sexual assault was an offence against their property (Ibid.).

Other punishments for rape included enslavement to modulus the offended family (if the offender was a servant or only half free), and death if the offender had the How does Globalization Impact Essay, audacity to flee to a church (Ibid.). Rape in the United Kingdom is a more puzzling affair. While it is commonly accepted that these mediaeval laws persisted, there is modulus definition some evidence to Optimism the contrary. The doctrine on common law and marital rape was stated explicitly in the 1275 and elastic modulus definition 1285 Statutes of in a economy, that most economic activity?, Westminster Johnson and Sigler 1997, p11). This was reiterated by the 17th century judge Sir Mathew Hale. He stated that ?the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract? (Hall 1984, p.xvi).

He based his judgement on ?ancient common law doctrine?. While the Athenian, Roman, and Papal law cited above does suggest that Sir Mathew was factually accurate, he may not have been technically correct. Common law is an organic law which changes with each judicial ruling. These rulings are able to overturn legal doctrines such as the elastic modulus, kind described in this paper so far. In 1631 a man was convicted in England of raping his wife (Hall, p.xvi). This suggests that perhaps, ?ancient common law doctrine? had long since been overturned by Than Spying Essay the time that Sir Mathew got to it. Modulus. Nevertheless it persisted unchanged until it was transferred to Canada in Bias in Project Essay the 18th century. Elastic. In 1800, the laws of in a market who makes activity?, England such as they were on September 17th, 1792, became Canadian laws. This was accomplished with the Act for the Further Introduction of elastic, English Criminal Law into Upper Canada (Garley 1989, p.26).

These laws were ineffective. Between 1840 and 1892, in Ontario, there were 228 rape prosecutions and 49 convictions (Ibid. pp. 29-30). By the late 1800?s the lit review, absurdity inherent in Sir Mathew Hale?s proclamation became evident. In R. v. Clarence, the courts decided that while a husband had the right to sexual intercourse with his wife, he could not enforce that right by using force(anon. 2000). The implied consent or the ?sexual rights? were no longer considered to modulus be absolute: Subsequent decisions restricted Hale's proposition to market most situations where husband and wife enjoyed ordinary relations between them, thus exposing abusive husbands to prosecution for elastic modulus, rape where they were judicially separated or where the wife had initiated divorce proceedings and had been granted a decree nisi (Ibid.). The law continued to crumble throughout the 20th century. In 1935, Southern Australia allowed for the conviction (albeit under exceptionally violent circumstances) of a husband for raping his wife.

In 1965, New Zealand permitted for lit review, the prosecution of husbands for raping their wives when a decree nisi was in place. Scotland barred spousal rape altogether in 1989, and England followed suit in 1991 (Ibid.). Modulus Definition. Canadian rape law throughout this period changed only lit review once. While the absolute sexual rights that were referred to in the mediaeval period and reinforced by Sir Mathew Hale did not survive the start of the twentieth century, the formal law still remained in place. It was not until 1983 that the law shielding a husband from a rape prosecution by his wife passed into history. Modulus. The law as it stood in 1927, and titled ?Unlawful Carnal Knowledge? reads as follows: 298. Rape is the act of a man having carnal knowledge of a woman who is not his wife without her consent, or with consent which has been extorted by and safety in salon threats or fear of bodily harm, or obtained by personating the woman?s husband, or by false and fraudulent representations as to the nature and quality of the act. [emphasis mine] (R.S., 1927, 289, p.87) By 1980, this law remained unchanged(Tremeear?s 1980 Criminal Code 143, p.61). A rape by definition could not be committed by a husband against his wife. Definition. While the absolute sexual right in perpetuity had ceased to Essay exist, the right was maintained in existing marriages though it was grounds for elastic modulus, divorce. The result of these laws was the gross under reporting of rape. It was not simply because many women believed that their attackers would not be punished, but it is that many women did not believe that an attack had taken place (Russell, p.134).

Furthermore, because the state had for so long assumed that a husband had a right to his wife?s body, many wives had accepted and adapted to lit review the situation. For a woman to elastic definition see her husband as a rapist and to continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Lit Review. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to elastic definition say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71). Women?s poor economic and social status had allowed for their continued use as sexual objects. The law reflected this.

It is a truism to state that Canada is a patriarchal society. Lit Review. There are reasons why this is so easily said, and the law prior to 1983 is elastic modulus definition one of them. Optimism Bias Management Essay. However, the law did change. With bill c-127 (1983) the law expanded to include spousal sexual assaults as part of its jurisdiction (Boritch, pp.234-235). Possibly because of this and reforms to the rules of evidence, the number of reported sexual assaults rose dramatically.

However, while half of all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in elastic modulus their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000) only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224). R. v. White (1-24 C.C.C. 3d,) is an example of a crime that would not have been prosecuted prior to the 1983 reforms. More Than. R. v. White is a 1986 case, brought before the British Columbia Court of Appeal. The accused (White) was married to the victim, but they were estranged (Ibid., p.1).

The victim returned home one night to find the accused wearing surgical gloves and elastic holding a pillow. She screamed, at which point he put the pillow over her face, and then covered her mouth with a bandage that wrapped around her head. He then beat her, threatened to murder her, and in a market who makes that most economic then after a long discussion, she went into the bedroom, where she was raped (Ibid., p.1). Before I continue, I should add that the actions described were perfectly legal until very recently. The accused claimed that the discussion led him to believe that his wife had consented to sex. He stated that he believed that sex was an attempt at reconciliation. Modulus Definition. The issue at hand in R. v. White is whether his mistaken belief that his wife consented is a valid defense. While the appeal of his conviction was dismissed, the fact that it went to trial is significant. If he had engaged in the identical activity three years earlier, he would have committed no crime. Economy, Who Makes That Economic Activity?. The signal difference between the law as it stands today and the law is it stood prior to 1983, was the modulus, fact that wives are no longer considered to lit review be the possession of their husbands.

Sexual assault by intimates including spouses comprises 38 percent of all sexual assaults in Canada (Ontario Women?s Directorate). However, while 6 percent of the total number of sexual assaults are reported to police, only 1 percent of these sexual assaults by intimates are reported (Ibid.). Several reasons for this lack of reporting are provided in surveys. Definition. One major reason for More Spying, not reporting sexual assaults by intimates is that the nature of the relationship may lead authorities to suspect that there really was consent. Furthermore, many women may not view a sexual assault by a husband or boyfriend as such. They may internalize the blame and say such things as, ?what did you think he wanted,? ?you drank with him didn't you,? or ?you should have expected something like this to happen.?(Ibid.).

In a search through fifty editions of Canadian Criminal Cases, I found only modulus one case of spousal rape that was prosecuted. How Does Globalization Impact On Crime And Victimisation? Essay. The vast majority of modulus definition, sexual assault prosecutions continue to How does Globalization on Crime and Victimisation? Essay be for assaults by definition strangers, on young women. Prior rape and sexual assault laws sought to protect the chastity of the gate theory of pain example, same class of young women from sexual predator. The purpose was to defend men?s property. A look at which rapes are prosecuted shows that this is elastic modulus still the case. Sexual assault law has existed since the time of Plato. Optimism Management Essay. The point of that law, and nearly every law that succeeded it was, in the case of women, not to protect them as victims, but to protect their husbands, brothers, or fathers as guardians. Sexual assault law developed slowly through the mediaeval period, and followed the elastic definition, development of marriage and spousal property. While in the Roman Empire, a woman was a free citizen with the rights to dispose of her property, and Globalization Essay enter into free contracts, in the mediaeval period, she was a possession to be transferred for a price from father to husband.

The mediaeval period saw the elastic modulus definition, development of the principle of in Project Management, a ?sexual right? that comes into existence with the consummation of a marriage. This right was so absolute as to elastic modulus allow the authorities to order a former wife to submit to a weekly scheduled rape. As this law came to England it was formalized in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster. Than Spying Essay. These confirmed a husband?s right to have sex with his wife, whenever he chose. In 1800, these laws came to Canada. For more than a century , the absolute and unbreakable sexual rights remained unchallenged. By the start of the 20th century, they were slowly chipped away at. A husband lost the absolute right to rape his wife even after they divorced. This right was confined to a marriage where ?ordinary relations? persisted. This law stood until 1983.

With bill c-127, the sexual assault laws were finally expanded to include violence within a marriage. However, regardless of the new law, few reports of spousal rapes are made. The reasons for this are numerous, but the most troubling is the belief by elastic modulus many wives, that what happened was not an assault. It is not until this last problem of internalized blame is More dealt with that two millennia of reforms can have any real deterrent value. Bibliography Annonymous (2000). The Historical Development of the Offense of Rape. http:canadiancrimanallaw.com/articles/srticles/rape.htm.

Boritch, Helen. Fallen Women: Female Crime and Criminal Justice in Canada, ITP Nelson (Toronto: 1997). Elastic Modulus. Brundage, James A. Implied Consent to Intercourse pp. 245-256, Consent and Coercion to Sex and theory example Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Cohen, David. Consent and Sexual Relations in Classical Athens pp. 5-16, Consent and Coercion to Sex and modulus definition Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993).

The Criminal Code and Other Selected Statutes of economy, guide most economic activity?, Canada, Edmond Cloutier (Ottawa: 1948). Garley, Kenneth David William. A Trust Betrayed: Sexual Assault in Dating/Courtship Relations and the Response of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.:1989). Hall, Ruth and Selma James and Judit Kertesz, The Rapist Who Pays the Rent, Falling Wall Press (Bristol : 1984). Elastic. Johnson, Ida M. and Robert Sigler, Forced Sexual Intercourse in Intimate Relationships, Ashgate-Dartmouth (Aldershot:1997). Health. Justinian (trans.) (circa 550) The Digest of Roman Law: Theft, Rapine, Dammage and elastic modulus Insult, C.F. Lit Review. Kolbert ed..Penguin Books (Middlesex, England: 1979) Ontario Women?s Directorate (2000). Sexual Assault Dispelling the Myths. http:www.womanabuseprevention.com/html/sexual_assault.html. R. v. White (1986), Canadian Criminal Cases, 1-24 C.C.C. (3d) Russell, Diana E.H., The Politics of Rape:The Victim?s Perspective, Stein and Day Publishers (New York: 1975).

Treemar?s 1980 Criminal Code and Miscellaneous Statutes, The Carswell Company ltd. (Toronto: 1980). Wemple, Suzanne F. Consent and Dissent to Sexual Intercourse in Germanic Societies from the Fifth to the Tenth Century pp. 227-244, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Definition. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Feminist Crim. When the words ?women? and ?crime? are spoken, the first two words to come to many minds are ?sexual assault?. According to gate control of pain most statistics, more than half of all women in Canada will be the elastic modulus definition, victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000). In some segments of the population that number rises to How does Globalization Impact on Crime 83 percent (Ibid.). While these numbers are high, the numbers of convictions for sexual assault are not.

According to elastic definition information presented by Helen Boritch, 10 percent of lit review, women can expect to modulus be sexually assaulted in any given year, while only 6 percent of in a who makes the decisions that most, these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224) . There is a very large discrepency of numbers. The vast majority of sexual assaults go unreported. Modulus. The vast majority of sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows (Ibid. In A Who Makes The Decisions That Guide Most Economic. pp.212-213). Perhaps the reason that so many sexual assaults go unreported is because of this overriding fact (Ontario Woman?s Directorate). Sexual assault within families was until recently legal in Canada.

The thinking went as such: The husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract (Hall, James and Kertesz 1984, p.20). The authorities believed that common law provided for the lawful rape of a wife by her husband. While this is a patently false proposition, by the 18th century, it had become the official line (Ibid. p.xvi). Definition. I didn?t feel that I had been raped. In A Market Guide Most Activity?. I felt more that I was stupid because I went out with a white fraternity guy. ..so I blamed myself for going out with him. Also I didn?t think of it as rape because I knew him and because I consented to go. At the time I thought rape was a man coming out of the bushes and attacking you, so somebody you knew couldn?t rape you (Russell 1975, p.134). For a woman to modulus definition see her husband as a rapist and to continue to live with him is gate control of pain example often too difficult. Definition. Many are too dependent on their husbands for economic, social, and and safety psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of elastic definition, her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71).

Crim (Deviancy) : Is there a point in my life when I considered myself to in a market that most economic be deviant, or others considered me to elastic be deviant? If so, how was the situation resolved? People are always telling me that I am ?weird?. I disagree with them. I believe that I am one of the least deviant people I know. I am very old fashioned though, so maybe that?s why I get the weird label. Nevertheless, there are few times in health and safety my life when I consider myself to be a ?deviant?. Elastic Modulus Definition. My self-concept appears to follow a dialectical pattern. I consider myself to be part of Essay, a group, and identify with that group and elastic definition its values. I increasingly find myself uncomfortable with some of the things which that group does or talks about.

At some point an incident occurs, and gate control I become isolated from the group. Elastic Definition. I then identify with a new group, and More Essay the process starts over. In other words, my membership in the first group can be considered a thesis. The thesis consists of that group?s world-view, which I share in. The crisis is the antithesis, it is the stage at which the cognitive dissonance that occurred within the modulus, thesis comes out into the open. Finally the new group is the of pain, synthesis.

In the synthesis, the world-view that I held in the thesis group is largely gone, as are the troubles of the antithesis. The most memorable dialectical shift in my life occurred in 1990-1991. In 1990, I was part of the dominant white clique at my junior high school, in suburban Richmond. While everyone had got along in elementary school, we all divided along racial lines when we got to high school. The Chinese kids all went and spent time together, and even the Chinese kids that could not speak Chinese, went. The East-Indian kids did as the elastic modulus definition, Chinese did, and the white kids followed suit. There was not anything malicious about example, any of it. Well, that is not entirely true.

Much of our time in the white group was spent making fun of kids in the East Indian and Chinese groups. Modulus Definition. However, we were not entirely racist, all the black kids in our school were part of our group. Our group had their own ?territory?, drama and the arts were ours, as well as physical education, while we gave the East-Indian kids shop class, and the Chinese kids, computer science. In A The Decisions Most. The rest of the classes were required, so we could not split them up as easily, though we did manage some how. By 1990, I was firmly ensconced in elastic this group. Globalization Impact And Victimisation? Essay. I had few complaints about elastic, it, I am quite good at making fun of people, so I was a valuable asset to the collective. In the summer of 1990, an incident happened which upset my place within the group. On July 11th of that year, a group of armed Mohawks got into a shooting war with the Quebec provincial police.

My group hated French immersion kids, so it seemed obvious to me which side we would come down on. I did not worry. Much to my surprise, the general attitude among the white kids was that the Than, government should send in tanks, and get rid of the ?Indians?. It had not occurred to me until that point that I am half-?Indian?. My family came down firmly on elastic definition, the side of the Mohawks. Most of my male cousins who were old enough went off to Globalization on Crime and Victimisation? Essay join one blockade or another, and at least one got himself sent to prison for definition, his troubles. We went out to the reserve more often. Previously we had gone there for the winter ceremonies, or for and safety in salon, birthday parties. This time we were going out there to ?plan things?. Elastic Modulus. Back at home amongst my friends, I found myself increasingly isolated. I got into more and more fights, both verbal and physical.

People that had been part of my group ? though not friends per lit review, se, walked past me like they did not know me. I started spending time with the black kids and the girls, and while they were not as overtly racist as the white boys, they were still racist. Young boys tend not to elastic modulus hide things, while young girls ? at gate control theory least in that group- seem to believe that in order to modulus be ?nice? it is their duty to hide their opinions. By the end of the summer I found myself completely shut out of the white group. I was the one of only two native kids at my school, so there was no chance of joining the native clique. The other native kid had lighter skin, so he began to pretend that he was Italian. I would say that ?I can?t blame him? but in and safety in salon reality I hated him and consider him to be a two-faced traitor. I spent more time on the reserve and with my younger cousins. With them, all the anger that had developed from being isolated could be vented destructively. It was o.k. in that group to elastic modulus definition hate the police and lit review the government.

It was o.k. to through rocks at police cars and buildings as well as other things that can not be mentioned here. Modulus Definition. In fact, not only health and safety in salon was it o.k. amongst the new clique, but it was accepted and approved of by the adults around us. The point at which I switched allegiances entirely from modulus white society to native society was at a family barbecue. The barbecue was at Management an uncle?s house. He was on the white side of my family. Everyone at the barbecue was white but me. Most of modulus definition, them were family, though there were a few family friends there. My parents stayed at in a who makes the decisions activity? home. That day happened to be the same day that the army advanced on native positions around Montreal.

Raw footage of the elastic modulus, attack was broadcast on live television. I was glued to Globalization Impact on Crime the news, and was very upset. I asked everyone else to come see what was happening. Because they were family I assumed that they would take my side. The group became very upset too, but at the natives.

One of my uncles friends went on a rant and started saying that all those ?Indians? want out of the modulus, crisis is money to on Crime and Victimisation? buy liquor. That is elastic modulus amongst the more polite things that he said. I noticed that several of my aunts and uncles agreed with him. My grandparents refused to say a word in my defense. When I did open my mouth to yell at him and give him the usual ?shpeel? about oppression et. And Safety. al., I was hushed up. Definition. I got up, and left. I walked home from there and health and safety told my parents. My father (he is very white) got into a loud argument over elastic modulus definition, the phone with my uncle and in a economy, who makes the decisions guide most economic my grandparents.

My mother yelled at me for going to the barbecue in the first place. It was after the barbecue that I decided that I would completely abandon ?white? culture in favor of native (Salish) culture, and elastic definition religion. In a pique of melodrama I went to the living room and threw my bible and little plastic Canadian flag into the fireplace. I have since changed since then, I know have a European wife, and white friends, and while I am no Christian, I certainly would not burn a perfectly good bible today. However, I still align myself with the More Than, native cause, and have abandoned any pretenses of Canadian citizenship. It is difficult to understand which theory of deviancy applied to me in that situation. Elastic Definition. Perhaps demonology applied to health and safety me, I did become a heathen, though that was after the fact (Gomme, p.41). If I was not possessed by the dark forces of the ?fallen one?, maybe I was the product of my environment (Ibid., p.43). However, my environment was a townhouse complex which was at least one quarter Jewish, and was smack in the center of elastic definition, suburban Vancouver. If environment played any role in my formation, I would have joined the Lion?s Club, or become a Freemason.

Two theories of deviance hold the most possibility for explaining my situation. The first is containment theory. Containment theory is the theory of inner and outer forces pushing and in salon pulling someone toward deviance (Ibid., p.81). Gomme writes that: Social forces that push and pull people toward deviant behavior include?membership in an ethnic minority, restricted access to legitimate opportunities (Gomme, p.81). These external social forces included my peers and my extended family. On the one hand, the white side of family, and definition my white friends ostracized me, and openly attacked me, while on the other hand, the Spying, native part of elastic modulus, my family, allowed me to vent my frustrations, and provided friends, and a ready target for teenage anger. I would also consider that my access to theory ?legitimate opportunities? was hampered by elastic modulus the activities of the whites around me. Lit Review. By ostracizing me, and making school unpleasant, the whites prevented me from achieving the scholastic success that was due. They also prevented me from pursuing the social relationships that I had established over four or more years. This legitimate frustration sought me to seek success in the native community and to attempt to form social bonds with natives.

Internal forces that constrain an individual from deviancy include, ?a positive self-concept, a strong ego, an intense sense of elastic modulus, personal responsibility, and a high frustration threshold? (Gomme, p.81). I know for a fact that I had none of these qualities. More often than not, a poor self-concept, and and safety in salon weak ego, led me to follow the crowd, and go along with whatever the group told me to elastic do. As for personal responsibility and the ability to be frustrated, I was suspect that I was an average teenager, and therefore, both of these things were absent. Containment theory appears to be a perfect fit. In A That Most Economic. I was pushed into deviancy by the people around me. Elastic Modulus. There are other theories that may be a better fit.

I will discount social control theory, because of its reliance on the concept of in a that activity?, deterrence (Ibid., p.89). I do not believe that there was either a general or a specific deterrence factor to being native. Up until 1990, being native was an curiosity, like being double jointed; it could be trotted out at parties to impress and elastic modulus entertain people. At that time, there was almost an gate control of pain example incentive to be exotic. Incentive does not apply in my case though. Elastic. Labeling theory has some interesting possibilities. The Oka crisis was an act of primary deviance (Gomme, p.100). If the Canadian State was to defend a burial ground in ? say, France ? from Globalization on Crime and Victimisation? conversion into a golf course, it would be considered to definition be legitimate. However, because the Mohawks lacked many of the legitimate venues that a Country would have in lobbying another on Bias in Project Essay, the international stage, they were forced into an act of violence ? a blockade. Afterwards they were attacked, and elastic modulus definition used force to defend themselves ? something that any country would do. That Economic Activity?. However because the Mohawk country is not recognized, what they did was considered to be an act of terrorism, and they were punished for it in those terms.

As for me, the primary act of deviance was defending the Mohawks in the Oka crisis. While the majority of my peers were attacking the Mohawks, I came to their defense. My first act of defense was primary deviance because it was isolated, and did not result in modulus ?continuous negative social reaction? (Ibid.). Because I did not consider that act of primary deviance to be deviant, I would not be self-identified as a deviant. Gomme writes about health in salon, what happened next: The application of derogatory labels and the severing of connections to conventional sphere intensify the definition, construction of a deviant identity by lit review forcing the devalued person to seek out others in similar situations who can provide more favorable reflections of the self. (Gomme, p.101). This description matches my situation to a tee. I was labeled as an ?Indian? (trust me, as a native, that is an insult), and my social connections were severed.

I sought out new social situations in modulus which I would be accepted and my anger approved of. As I wrote at gate control theory of pain example the start of modulus, this paper, I do not consider myself to Bias in Project Management be a deviant ? in any sense of the modulus, term. Labeling theory requires that I identify with my deviance. I do not, and did not. My main goal in life is to modernize native society, and help guide it toward independence.

If I accepted native society as it is, I suppose that I could be considered deviant in control of pain the labeling theory sense. However, my allegiance to native society, is a biological one, that recognizes my membership in it as a fact of biology. My formal association with native life began because I was pushed into it. When that force was removed I formed new friendships with whites. It is because of this that I suspect that the best explanation for my period of deviance is contained in elastic modulus containment theory. I would draw a comparison between my situation and that of people described in ?Normalcy and Visibility?.

While I am not often mistaken as Anglo-Saxon white, I do have a passing resemblance to a straight-haired version of a Jewish stereotype; I have also passed as Catalonian, Mexican, and Greek. Gate Control Of Pain. People do not know that I am native until I tell them; I am racially ambiguous. The article gives one major relevant factor to living with an invisible disability. The first was that people had the option of maintaining a ?semblance of normalcy? (Thorne 1993, p.9). I my case, I have the option of passing as white. This is disturbingly important in elastic definition this country. For example , until recently I worked in a West Side grocery store. This store had an up market clientele. Among the items the store sold were bags and cards with native designs on them. After a while began to notice that in spite of this native friendly image that the store had, even middle-class natives could not enter the store without being considered to be a shoplifter by the management. My co-workers also occasionally told stories in which natives were attacked or demeaned.

If I were to reveal my identity, I would face being excluded from these conversations. If I was excluded from these conversations, I would face being excluded from their social circle in general, and any future options for advancement that arise from being a part of the ?in? group. I decided to keep my mouth shut, and get a raise instead. Impact And Victimisation?. If I was visibly more native that option would not have been open to me. Deviance in my case is not really deviance on my part. When I did have a spell of deviant activity, it was caused by external forces. When those external forces were removed, the deviancy ended. This deviancy is in definition some ways voluntary, because I can hide it. However, I do not believe that by engaging in a profound act of self-denial can be a reasonable choice, so the voluntary choice is somewhat less real. I have found many other people in similar situations. There are quite a few natives that can pass in white society, and do so, however, they maintain a true allegiance to their nation.

I have found this common thread among many other natives: they had a lot more white friends, until opinions hardened against our peoples. Lit Review. While we hold the elastic modulus, same western liberal views that we have always had, we no longer see Canada, or our white liberal peers, as friends but enemies, and dangerous ones at that; and Spying Essay it is not something that we chose. Bibliography Gomme, Ian. The Shadow Line: Deviance and Crime in Canada, Harcourt Brace Jovonovich (Tornto: 1993). Thorne, S.E. (1993).

Normalcy and Visibility. In Social Explanations of modulus, Criminal and Deviant Behaviour, Brian Burtch Ed., Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.: 2000). Crim 135: Essay 2 The major argument in favour of curtailing judicial independence and prosecutorial discretion is in a market that economic activity? that the justice system needs to elastic be more accountable, more consistent, and more predictable. Each of Optimism Bias Management, these counts against the justice system is based on the mistaken assumption that the modulus definition, justice system needs to be a rational and efficient corporate body. That is to say, that the justice system must act as a single entity with the rasion d?etre of fighting, controlling, and deterring crime. The advocates of legal straightjackets have failed to prove their prima facie case. The justice system has no need to be a single solid structure with automated systems of judges, lawyers and parole officers. Gate Control Theory Of Pain. In the strictly constructed systems of our less-democratic cousins, lawyers, judges and their ilk serve only to diagnose the criminal for the sole purpose of placing them in elastic definition a category of offender, prisoner, and gate control of pain parolee.

The primary fault of the argument in favour of judicial and prosecutorial constraints is that it carries in itself the tacit assumption of modulus, guilt. And Safety In Salon. By merely categorizing a citizen as an offender under the criminal code, the most authoritarian and elastic modulus unaccountable element of the gate control of pain, justice system, the police, has effectively acted as judge jury and executioner. The citizen, who becomes labeled as an offender under the criminal code is shunted off to a holding cell, where, another police official determines if they are to be released. This police official would, at definition this stage in the current system use subjective criteria to determine if the offender was a significant risk and should be released; in a constrained system, the crime would determine the availability of release automatically. How Does Globalization On Crime And Victimisation?. In the constrained system, the elastic modulus, belligerent, and indigent, flasher would go free; while the tenured professor whose failing student wrongfully accused him of market who makes the decisions, rape would be sent before a judge. Upon reaching the judge, the charges wold determine the bail-after all, consistency is the modus vivendi of the elastic definition, constrained system.

Griffiths and Verdun-Jones note that those people that have been denied bail and appear at their trial in health state custody are more likely to be found guilty, and, when found so, they are more likely than other convicted citizens to receive a harsh sentence. Beside the clear difficulty encountered by imprisoned people in mounting a defense against the state's accusations, there is a secondary problem of facing a jury of their peers while in custody. Definition. To the average citizen, the appearance of one of their wayward neighbours in How does Impact on Crime Essay chains is elastic modulus definition likely to prejudice them against him or her. In a future system of 'consistent' justice it is likely that those offences where the punishment is most severe, the indictable offences, that the citizen is likely to be held in custody; and, it is those same indictable offences, to be tried before a jury, where the accussed's status as a prisoner is health in salon most likely to be held against them. While the accussed's status as a prisoner is elastic not a de jure proclamation of their guilt, to the average citizen of a western liberal democracy, the presence of some person that has been forcibly removed from society is a de facto statement that they are dangerous. Bias Management. In the model state of consistency that certain legal reformers foresee, the police, the justices, prosecutors, and judges would 'apply' the law according to a strict set of elastic modulus, rules. Optimism In Project. The state's agents will act with no prejudice, no leeway, no derogation and no derivation and no mercy. The police would presumably lay every applicable charge against every accused person that is brought to their attention. Not only would a person be brought to justice for forcible rape, but also for equally abhorrent crimes such as assault and battery, littering, loitering in a public park, attempted murder, reckless endangerment, unlawful confinement, jaywalking, speeding, creating a disturbance, resisting arrest, and any other possible offence related to the crime and the flight from justice.

Griffiths and elastic Verdun-Jones have noted that in the recently more open atmosphere of plea-bargaining, police have become more consistent appliers of each and every conceivable law. Not only How does Impact on Crime Essay has a person been charged with one crime, but also of every other alternative charge available. Elastic Definition. In the process of plea bargaining, a great deal of trust is needed between the defense counsel and the crown. This trust often resembles collusion. In the economy, that guide most, process of plea bargaining the elastic definition, multiple -though mutually exclusive- charges against an offender are often reduced to a single charge in exchange for a guilty plea and reciprocal sentencing recommendation. In reality, the accused are bargaining away irrelevant charges for lit review, the single charge that they would have faced anyway, in elastic modulus definition short, the accused gains nothing from a system of Globalization and Victimisation? Essay, bargaining based on consistent policing. There is, however, nothing consistent about plea-bargaining. Plea-bargaining is at the heart of prosecutorial discretion. Prosecutorial discretion would go the way of inconsistent policing and it would be abolished. Consistency in prosecution requires that each and modulus definition every accused be treated identically.

In order for each accused to be seen to be treated identically, they must have each and every charge dealt with in an open court of record. Inconsistency is not a problem with the police, prosecutors, or parole board members. Inconsistency is what enables the police, prosecutors, and parole board members to More Spying Essay consider the elastic modulus, human factor of the crime. I f police were to 'throw the book' at health in salon every criminal, the elastic definition, system what bog down with minor crimes. Lit Review. Furthermore, while some acts may technically be crimes, they may not have been enforced in twenty or thirty years. A possible problem of inconsistency is with judges. Sentencing may vary across the country - though there is very little evidence to say if it does or does not. There are sentencing guidelines, but there are no uniform statistics on sentencing which would allow the public to determine if these sentencing guidelines are being followed. When sentencing is brought to the public's attention, it is only in elastic definition the most extreme cases where a particularly lenient sentence has been given out. Therefore the best solution for Essay, inconsistent sentencing is to produce and publish uniform statistics on sentencing in order to determine of sentencing guidelines are being followed. Definition. Any other reform of the judicial sentencing process before these statistics were produced and before their impact was observed on the judicial branch would be premature.

It is possible that many judges that have handed out Optimism Bias in Project Management Essay lenient or severe sentences did not realize that they were significantly out of line with the Canadian mainstream. Conclusion Discretion is not a problem, perception is. The police need discretion in order to enforce laws commensurate with the changes in community values. Police also need the definition, ability to exercise their discretion in order to How does Impact on Crime enforce laws as they are best able to do and to not get swamped with petty crimes, while resources are needed to deal with serious offences. Elastic Definition. Prosecutors need the ability to exercise discretion in order to plea bargain. Without the ability to plea bargain, prosecutors may find that they send far too much time prosecuting ancillary legal offences while the main crime is not given their full attention.

The only reform necessary, is not technically a reform, but is lit review instead a fine-tuning of the current system to allow it to function better, and that is the production and publication of uniform statistics on sentencing. Communications 131 Review: Neil Postman?s Amusing Ourselves to Death Robert Jago 200015294 Neil Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death focuses on the change from modulus definition what he calls a 'typographic' society to a televisual society. This change involves the decline of rational, linear thought which is based on the book, to disjointed, a-historical, and non-inferential thought which is based on the standards of television. Postman's prima facie argument is that the medium of communications affects forms of thought. His first argument is based entirely on conjecture (though later in the book Postman does cite a study by Gavriel Solomon, p.152 footnote 4). Postman argues that television and its predecessors (the telegraph, the photograph) changed people's modes of thought through operant conditioning. Television and electronic communications in general force people to understand only the More, immediate and to forget the elastic modulus definition, past. Several of Postman's axioms are questionable, and his data is open to competing interpretations. How Does Impact On Crime And Victimisation?. Most importantly, Postman's study of the elastic modulus definition, electronic society focused on lit review, it in an immature stage of development. Modern electronic culture is quite different from the one that Postman studied. Neil Postman's stated purpose for elastic modulus, his book is to, show that a great media-metaphor shift has taken place in Management Essay America, with the result that the content of much of our public discourse has become dangerous nonsense(p.16).

To that end, his book opens with a glimpse at the United States of the early nineteen-eighties and modulus an explanation of his use of the word metaphor. For Postman the media metaphor is a metaphor that draws analogies between aspects of the media and Bias in Project Essay aspects of society. Postman states that in the literate age, metaphors abounded. Alice in wonderland, became a metaphor for a person wandering in 'a world of semantic nonsense' and trying to make sense out of definition, it; Athens became a metaphor for intellectual excellence and so on. In the twentieth century, the printed word added very little in More Than Essay terms of metaphor. Definition. Terms such as Orwellian, thought police, but very little else transferred over from the printed page into middle class speech. The metaphor of the later twentieth century was to be dictated by television. Modes of thought mimicked television production standards.

Postman charts the transition from the typographic mind, through the 'peek - a - boo' world and into the 'now. Health. this' world of television. The larger scale of the medium metaphor is what Postman refers to as resonance. Postman states that resonance is metaphor writ large. What Postman appears to mean here is that resonance is the stuff of myths, when social customs and norms, and idiosyncrasies become confused with nature. Just as one is definition seen as peculiar to question the effects of the construction of mountains, one is seen as equally peculiar to in Project Management Essay question such social constructs as [Noam Chomsky notwithstanding] contemporary English word usage and grammar.

After first explaining his proposition on how the dominant medium of communications affects forms of thought, Postman uses the remainder of the first part of elastic definition, his book to describe decline of the How does Impact on Crime Essay, printed word in America. He begins with describing 'typographic' America at elastic modulus definition its peak. Postman describes a country -though not a nation- where the ability to read was nearly universal among men, and, where foreign reading materials were abundant (P. 34). The way in which he describes the empowerment that the average person may have felt is interesting for my third argument [that Postman contrasted typographic America with the wrong era of the electronic age].

By 1772, Jacob Duche could write: 'The poorest labourer upon the shore of the Delaware thinks himself entitled to deliver his sentiment in matters of religion or politics with as much freedom as the Optimism Bias, gentleman or scholar. ' (P. Modulus Definition. 33) The printing press dominated the minds of health and safety, typographic Americans. Their modes of thought mirrored the construction of books and pamphlets. Books were linear, impersonal, rational, and historical. The written word was never read 'live'. Modulus. People's minds functioned in these same ways. People were rational and thought historically and therefore linearly. Public discourse in and safety in salon typographic America was fundamentally rational and intelligent. Advertising and politics were based on modulus definition, reasoned argument [for the most part]. More Than Spying. According to Postman, the change in public discourse occurred because of the change in the media available to the public.

The first major change that Postman notes is the invention of the telegraph. While it is interesting to note that the industrial revolution, and the rise of the urban centres occurred at roughly the same time as the invention of the telegraph, it is the later event that most effected the way that people think and behave. Following the elastic modulus, telegraph came the photograph. The telegraph changed the meaning of intelligence and information. In A Market Who Makes The Decisions That Economic Activity?. In preliterate days, intelligence was synonymous with memory. In the typographic age, intelligence became synonymous with rationality. Elastic Modulus. With the Than Essay, electronic age heralded in by the telegraph, intelligence became the ability to sift through large amounts of data. News in modulus typographic society consisted of useful facts and information. Postman describes a type of apathy ratio, what he calls an More 'information-action ratio' (P.69).

In typographic America, efficacy as seen through individual responses to 'news' was significantly higher than it is in modern televisual America. Elastic Definition. The telegraph made trivia in place of More Spying, news. Surely people in Finland could finally know the elastic modulus definition, day to day events that occurred in Lorado Texas, but, why would they want to? According to Postman, the telegraph made the United States one nation [this was also coincident with the Civil War and the United States' great era of wars of lit review, conquest]. The telegraph allowed people on elastic modulus definition, the Pacific and the Atlantic shores to know the minutiae of each others every day lives. While the telegraph trivialized the public space with useless information and 'factoids' the photograph came along to act as a magnifying glass for these details. How Does Globalization Impact On Crime And Victimisation? Essay. The photograph increased the impact of the modulus definition, proliferating factoids, by giving them a face and a presence greater than a thousand words. How Does Globalization On Crime Essay. By the elastic modulus definition, time the photograph and the telegraph had become ascendant, the public discourse had irrevocably changed. Advertising became irrelevant, irrational, and the first slogans were developed [following shortly after such election slogans 'fifty-four forty or fight' or 'Tippacannoe and Tyler too' or the market who makes that guide economic, Democratic Party's anti-Republican song 'Nigger Doodle Dandy'].The era of the photograph and the telegraph are what Postman calls 'the peek-a-boo world'. Part two of the book focuses on elastic modulus definition, the particular ills of the televisual age.

The greatest ill, and one that Neil Postman had focused on in the past, is the decline in gate theory education in favour of entertainment. Definition. A prime example for Postman is health and safety 'The Voyage of the Mimi' series. This series is elastic a study that involves a great deal of time on behalf of and safety in salon, children in order to study whales and modulus definition navigation among other things. None of these things are relevant to education in any traditional sense of the word. Postman's analysis of that particular series is that it is an example of the education changing in order to meet the needs of television. While there are more books in print in the television age, they do not have the impact of lit review, their fewer but more serious predecessors.

As was the case with the Voyage of the Mimi series, books seem to have become 'audio-visual aids'. Books have lost their seriousness. Books in the modern context no longer command the attention that they once did. The printed word in the modern context is a visual aid, it celebrates the dominant medium and is constructed around television's conventions. Modulus Definition. For example, a glance at any of the Fin de Siecle 'best 100 [or 1'000 et al.] lists that currently proliferate, would show what books are considered to lit review be of definition, substance to this society. In the Globe and Mail's list of the best history books are, a picture book, Atlas of World History, and ESPN Sport Century.

Among the best seller lists are a book of lists, a book by lit review a television writer, a book by a faded hockey star, a book by modulus definition a movie writer, a book of trivia. While there are more books in print today than ever before, it is likely that they are to be gems such as ESPN Sport Century, as opposed to Walden or the Native Son. Postman concludes his book by analyzing this 'dangerous' lack of in Project Essay, substance brought on by the conventions of the television age. Postman uses two of modulus, major metaphors of the decline of western society. the first is the Orwellian. Today the totalitarian state is Than confined to only a few fourth rate and declining states such as Myanmar and Belarus and so its position as primary threat to elastic modulus Western Liberty has given way. In the place of the Orwellian thought police and big brother is Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World'. The brave new world of Postman's interpretation is Globalization Impact and Victimisation? Essay one where television has taken the place of Huxley's 'Soma' [an ecstacy like drug]. People have forsaken their liberty and modulus definition democracy in favour of simple and constant pleasures. Postman concludes that television has created a Brave New World where the statescraftsmen are given free hand by a public more interested in their leader's private affairs than their economic policies. This new world where seriousness is mocked, and where depth of imagination, and attention span have gone into steep decline is one that has put democracy and freedom in lit review grave danger.

Postman proposes that the solution to the current state of affairs is to inoculate the populous through education. People would be educated to understand the television epistemology, and to modulus definition not just become media savvy, but to become aware of the Than Essay, myths that surround the dominant medium. The current dominant medium in the United States and Canada is elastic modulus definition television. Other media, such as radio, and How does Impact and Victimisation? Essay print are complementary to modulus television and have very little independent sway over societal mores. Postman's analysis could only take into account society up to More Essay the mid 1980's. That society lacked the elastic definition, internet, and such venues as digital cable and inexpensive satellite dishes. Postman derides libertarians for attacking government censorship but failing to lit review take on the oligarchy of the big-three networks. In his discussion of the typographic age, Postman describes the empowerment of the common man by modulus his ability to converse and understand every subject of importance.

Postman takes especial note of More Than, Benjamin Franklin's views on the importance of the pamphlet. Each of modulus, these points noted by Postman can lead to a different final conclusion if extrapolated into health in salon the internet age. To begin with, the modern era of between seventy and five-hundred television channels should have been easily foreseen by Postman. He noted the lack of elastic modulus definition, attention by the general public, and how that brief attention span was created by television. Lit Review. The television of Postman's study was, by current standards, conservative, and for lack of a better word, 'deep'. The oligarchy of the three networks is definition gone, replaced by a constellation of specialty television networks [though production is now owned by Optimism in Project Management Essay a few industrial concerns].

Attention spans are even briefer, and every whim under the sun can be served by its own television network. Contrary to Postman's original argument that the product of a populace obsessed by entertainment is political apathy, entertainment can create political involvement. Definition. While Postman described the Essay, efficacy felt by the people of the typographic age, he failed to note that part of the efficacy was inspired by such public proceedings as the public hanging. Postman failed to realize that a public raised on scripted spectacle, would be enraptured by live reality. In a world of instant communications, there is enough live spectacle to keep every audience entertained. This entertainment can be translated into efficacy through such means as instant television poll, something that Postman only briefly touched on. Postman's description of the transition from literate to televised worlds and the coincident transformation of society from definition literate and rational to base and excitable is economy, that economic not entirely accurate. He fails to take into consideration other factors such as the second industrial revolution and elastic the expansion of liberty within countries which may explain the general decline in the public discourse.

Postman places the blame for the decline in rationality solely on the dominant medium of communications. Furthermore, Postman writes that people have lost the sense of efficacy vis a vis the state. While people may be voting less, they may be participating more. More Spying. Protest groups, lobby groups, special interest groups, petitions, and elastic definition the like have proliferated in Globalization Impact and Victimisation? post-industrial society. People may have transferred their trust from the state to the epistemic community and they may have done this because of a new involving medium.

Bibliography Postman, Neil, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Buisness, Penguin Books (Toronto: 1986).